Can computers be ‘intelligent’?
AI is about machines performing tasks normally requiring human intelligence
- Visual perception, natural language processing, complex decision making (automated reasoning), artificial creativity, etc.
- “AI is whatever hasn’t been done by computers yet” (Larry Tesler’s Theorem)
- When AI solves a problem, it stops being considered AI and becomes part of everyday computing
- So, in 1998, playing chess and optical character recognition were considered AI applications
- Now, AI is more about autonomous robots and self-driving vehicles
- In a few years time, these applications might not be considered AI anymore
- AI is crossing into our everyday lives:
- Face recognition, digital assistants, language translation and other applications on our mobile phones
- New computer interfaces (e.g. non-invasive brain-machine interfaces)
Stages of AI
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
- Also known as Weak AI
- Machines can perform a narrow set of specific tasks (e.g. play chess, sustain a dialogue with a human, identify faces in a picture, etc.)
- Machine learning can be based on rules (reactive AI) or examples (limited memory AI)
- Today’s AI is ANI
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
- Also known as Strong AI
- Machines possess human-like abilities to think and make decisions (theory of mind AI, self-aware AI)
- In AGI, machines will be able to keep on learning by experience and develop their intelligence, much like humans do (but, presumably, faster and deeper)
Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
- This is just a hypothesis at this stage: machines with AGI might one day reach a stage where they are collectively (much) smarter than humans
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