Controlled Supply

Bitcoin

“A fixed money supply, or a supply altered only in accord with objective and calculable criteria, is a necessary condition to a meaningful just price of money.”

Fr. Bernard W. Dempsey, S.J. (1903-1960)

In a centralized economy, currency is issued by a central bank at a rate that is supposed to match the growth of the amount of goods that are exchanged so that these goods can be traded with stable prices. The monetary base is controlled by a central bank. In the United States, the Fed increases the monetary base by issuing currency, increasing the amount banks have on reserve or by a process called Quantitative Easing.

In a fully decentralized monetary system, there is no central authority that regulates the monetary base. Instead, currency is created by the nodes of a peer-to-peer network.

The Bitcoin generation algorithm defines, in advance, how currency will be created and at what rate. Any currency that is generated by a malicious user that does not follow the rules will be rejected by the network and thus is worthless.


Currency with Finite Supply


Block reward halving
Controlled supply

Bitcoins are created each time a user discovers a new block. The rate of block creation is adjusted every 2016 blocks to aim for a constant two week adjustment period (equivalent to 6 per hour.)

The number of bitcoins generated per block is set to decrease geometrically, with a 50% reduction every 210,000 blocks, or approximately four years. The result is that the number of bitcoins in existence will not exceed slightly less than 21 million.

Speculated justifications for the unintuitive value “21 million” are that it matches a 4-year reward halving schedule; or the ultimate total number of Satoshis that will be mined is close to the maximum capacity of a 64-bit floating point number. Satoshi has never really justified or explained many of these constants.

Cumulated bitcoin supply

This decreasing-supply algorithm was chosen because it approximates the rate at which commodities like gold are mined. Users who use their computers to perform calculations to try and discover a block are thus called Miners.





First Time/Small Miner

First time/Small miner reference
for getting started.

If you want to start mining here is what you need… and what you need to know.

This is written for home miners/small farms, but can be used as a guideline for most operations. Use this as a reference for what you need to research, or what questions you need to ask before jumping in.

What you need to mine can be broken down into the following categories:

  • Hardware
  • Electricity
  • Location
  • Internet connection
  • Information

Mining BITCOIN is done exclusively with dedicated BITCOIN mining hardware based on ASICs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application-specific_integrated_circuit .

You CAN NOT meaningfully mine bitcoin today with CPU, GPU or even FPGAs. Bitcoin difficulty adapts to match the amount of mining done on the network and has reached levels trillions of times too high to mine meaningfully with PCs, laptops, tablets, phones, webpages, javascript, GPUs, and even generalised SHA hardware.

Even if you combined all the computers in the world, including all known supercomputer, you would not even approach 0.1% of the bitcoin hashrate today.

There isn’t any point attempting to mine bitcoin with CPU or GPU even in the interests of learning as it shares almost nothing with how bitcoin is mined with ASICs and will not teach you anything.

Hardware

Asic Miner:

Here is a list of the companies currently manufacturing Miners for public purchase.

Each one has their Pro’s and Con’s it is up to you to do your research and decide what is best for you.

A few points to consider while researching are :

  • efficiency
  • reliability
  • warranty period/policy
  • power draw

Each company has a different way of handling warranty repairs, depending on your situation and the policy repairs can become cost prohibitive. I will touch more on efficiency and power draw in the electricity section.

• Current list of competitive hardware

Power supply: You will need to purchase a power supply to run your miners. You will find ATX and Server grade PSU’s, the latter being preferred for mining BTC. 

When it comes to selecting a PSU purchase something with a capacity 25% higher than your miner is rated to draw. This will have you operating within the 80% rule.(explained further in the electricity section)

EX. Miner draws 1000 PSU should be able to provide 1250W.

** Many current generation miners are now being manufactured with Integrated PSU. Again do your research to see if your unit comes with or without. Generally you will still need to source a power cable.**

Auxilliaries – Avalon miners require an external controller, 1 per 20 miners. You may have to run additional fans for intake and exhaust depending on your location.

PSU’s can be purchased large enough to run 2 Miners; or the opposite 1 Miner fed by 2 PSU’s. Ensure the PSU you have selected will have the correct amount of PCI-E connectors required to operate your miner(s)

You can also find a large supply of used miners and PSU’s. Again it’s up to you to do your research as these often are a no return transaction.

Electricity

Follow all local codes and regulations

This is the number 1 factor in whether mining is right for you. As discussed with Miners being a 24/7 machine drawing power those costs will make it cost prohibitive for some people to mine. You need to be aware of what your costs/kWh are and run the numbers.

This will be done in a profitability calculator. This is just an example of 1 there are many out there.

( Miner usage in kW ) * ( Hours run per day ) 24 * ( Cost/kWh ) = Cost per Day to Operate

( Ideally less than the FIAT value of BTC mined )

The second part to the electrical requirements of mining is the available service; written for North America.

You will need to figure out the amperage you can spare, what circuits and receptacles you have in place, are you setting up on 220V or 110V. You will need to make sure that you have the right cord end for your PSU to match the receptacle, picking the wrong one can cost you a few days of mining if it has to be shipped.

If you can try and set up on a 220V circuit for 2 reasons :

– You will pull half the amps, and it is more efficient.

– Doing so requires 2 breaker spaces in your panel. Breaker sizing will depend on how many miners you plan to run. Here is the formula for calculating amps.

Watts / Voltage = Amps

Here is where you will bring the 80% rule back into play by sizing the continuous miner load to 80% of the breaker rating. 12 Amps on a 15 Amp breaker, 16 Amps max on a 20 Amp breaker, 24 Amps on a 30 amp breaker.

If/when you increase the amount of miners you are running you may want to look into PDU’s, as opposed to more receptacles. 

Location

This is something that is often overlooked to the headache and frustration of many would be miners. These machines are loud and hot .
You essentially have an electric heater that also uses an industrial fan to keep it from melting itself. This space will need to have the electrical requirements as discussed previously.

So make sure you have a space that is well ventilated with a plan to exhaust heat, and bring in fresh dust free air. I say this as using AC to cool the room will eat into your profits and may even make mining unprofitable.

The noise issue is a consideration you can sort out depending on whats available. (garage, basement, remote building)

Both of these issues can be handled with hosting, which is further explained in the information section.

Internet connection

Some miner setups have the option to use wifi. It is advisable to use a wired connection where available. This will provide a more stable connection and ensure you are submitting the expected amount of shares which is directly related to your payouts.

Please note that mining uses a negligible amount of bandwidth, and will not affect your other internet usage.

Information

You can use this information in this post as a good baseline to get you going. In addition to this you will want to research network difficulty; this readjusts every 2016 blocks to maintain a 10 minute block time on average. While this can go down it generally increases.

Solo or Pool?

You can solo mine but this is essentially a lottery even as a large scale miner. Should you chose this you can check this out as a starting point.

solo.ckpool.org 1% fee solo mining USA/DE 250 blocks solved!

Odds are most of you will join a pool. I will only say that it is in your best interest to mine at a pool that pays transaction fees (miner rewards). Then you will want to consider the fees associated with the pool.

When it comes to these pools you want them to be large enough that they are getting at least 1 block every Difficulty adjustment period. Larger pools will offer smaller rewards paid out more frequently, and vice versa.





Au – 💲 – ₿



Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

It is a bright, slightly orange-yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal in a pure form.

Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions.

Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, veins, and alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element  silver (as electrum), naturally alloyed with other metals like copper and palladium, and mineral inclusions such as within pyrite.

Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides).

A relatively rare element, gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage,  jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history.

In the past, a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policy.

Still, gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971.

As of 2017, the world’s largest gold producer by far was China, with 440 tonnes per year.

A total of around 201,296 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2020. This is equal to a cube with each side measuring roughly 21.7 meters (71 ft).

Gold’s high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion-resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use).

The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments and 10% in industry.

Gold is also used in infrared shielding,  colored-glass production, gold leafing, and tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine.



F I A T


Fiat money (from Latinfiat“let it be done”) is a type of money that is not backed by any commodity such as gold or silver, and typically declared by a decree from the government to be legal tender.

Throughout history, fiat money was sometimes issued by local banks and other institutions. In modern times, fiat money is generally established by government regulation.

Yuan dynasty banknotes are a
medieval form of fiat money

Fiat money does not have intrinsic value  and does not have use value. It has value only because the people who use it as a medium of exchange agree on its value. They trust that it will be accepted by merchants and other people.

Fiat money is an alternative to commodity money, which is a currency that has intrinsic value because it contains a precious metal such as gold or silver which is embedded in the coin.

Fiat also differs from representative money, which is money that has intrinsic value because it is backed by and can be converted into a precious metal or another commodity.

Fiat money can look similar to representative money (such as paper bills), but the former has no backing, while the latter represents a claim on a commodity (which can be redeemed to a greater or lesser extent).

Government-issued fiat money  banknotes  were used first during the 11th century in China.

Fiat money started to predominate during the 20th century.

Since President Richard Nixon‘s decision to default on the US dollar convertibility to gold in 1971, a system of national fiat currencies has been used globally.

Fiat money can be:

  • Any money that is not backed by a commodity.
  • Money declared by a person, institution or government to be legal tender, meaning that it must be accepted in payment of a debt in specific circumstances.
  • State-issued money which is neither convertible through a central bank to anything else nor fixed in value in terms of any objective standard.
  • Money used because of government decree.
  • An otherwise non-valuable object that serves as a medium of exchange (also known as fiduciary money.)

The term fiat derives from the Latin word  fiat, meaning “let it be done” used in the sense of an order, decree or resolution.


Bitcoin – Digital Gold

The most common, and best, ways to think about bitcoin is as “digital gold”.

Like gold, bitcoin doesn’t rely on a central issuer, can’t have its supply manipulated by any authority, and has fundamental properties long considered important for a monetary good and store of value.

Unlike gold, bitcoin is extremely easy and cheap to “transport”, and trivial to verify its authenticity.

Bitcoin is also “programmable”. This means custody of bitcoin can be extremely flexible. It can be split amongst a set of people (“key holders”), backed up and encrypted, or even frozen-in-place until a certain date in the future. This is all done without a central authority managing the process.

You can walk across a national border with bitcoin “stored” in your head by memorizing a key.

The similarities to gold, plus the unique features possible because bitcoin is purely digital, give it the “digital gold” moniker.

Sharing fundamental properties with gold means it shares use-cases with gold, such as hedging inflation and political uncertainty.

But being digital, bitcoin adds capabilities that are especially relevant in our modern electronic times.

The world does indeed need a digital version of gold.


People’s Money



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ASICs vs. SuperComputers

Asics
SuperComputers

ASICs vs Supercomputers


Assigning the most powerful supercomputer to mine bitcoin would be comparable to hiring a grandmaster chess player to move a pile of bricks by hand.

The job would get done eventually but the chess player is much better at thinking and playing chess than exerting energy to repetitively move bricks. 

Likewise, combining the computing power of the most powerful supercomputers in the world and using them to mine bitcoin would essentially be pointless when compared to the ASIC machines used today.

ASICs are designed to do one thing as quickly and efficiently as possible, whereas a supercomputer is designed to do complicated tasks or math problems.

Since Bitcoin mining is a lottery based on random trial and error rather than complex math, specialization (ASICs) beats general excellence (supercomputers) everytime.


End of Lesson !!!



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DEX Aggregators 2022

Top DEX Aggregators

Decentralized exchange (DEX) aggregators, also known as liquidity aggregators, compile the exchange rates of numerous DEX platforms and show you a list of platforms offering the best value for your crypto trades.

Moreover, you can access a deeper pool of liquidity by trading on multiple DEXs using a single trading dashboard. Think of them as the search engines of the DeFi landscape, scouring DEXs for the best deals so that you can swap your crypto assets with the lowest fees.

1Inch

Although it is a DEX in its own right, 1Inch’s main USP is its position as a top DEX aggregator across multiple blockchains. The network supports trades across major ecosystems like Ethereum and Binance and smaller networks like Polygon, Arbitrum, and Optimism.

As an aggregator, 1Inch gives you access to over 120 liquidity sources, with 68 on Ethereum, 39 on Binance, and 24 on Polygon. With daily trading volumes averaging close to $300 million from 300,000+ active users, it is one of the most active DEX aggregators in 2021.

The native token of the 1Inch DEX is also called 1INCH. It functions as both a utility token and a governance token for the protocol. 1INCH is a multi-chain token available on the Ethereum and Binance Smart Chain.

1Inch is one of the best DEX aggregators for crypto rookies, with detailed documentation and a well-developed Help Center filled with starter guides, FAQs, and more.



Slingshot

Slingshot grew out of DEX.AG, a DEX aggregator platform created in late 2018 as part of a hackathon event. At its launch, it supported seven major DEX, including Uniswap, Kyber, and DDEX.

After million-dollar funding rounds, DEX.AG was rebranded as Slingshot in November 2020. Slingshot works on Ethereum-based protocols – Polygon (formerly MATIC) and Arbitrum One. Across the two, you get access to over 326 exchanges/liquidity sources.

Slingshot is a very popular choice among experienced cryptocurrency traders due to its relative simplicity and advanced functionality. The average daily volumes touching over half a billion dollars is a testament to the platform’s popularity.

However, due to a threadbare interface and lack of easily accessible website FAQs, guides, and documentation, Slingshot is not a very beginner-friendly DEX platform.



Totle Swap

Totle is a DEX aggregator that also dips into synthetic asset providers, allowing traders to engage with tokenized assets of many shapes and sizes. Unfortunately, the platform seems to be dormant, with no updates since mid-2021 and a lack of stats on any major crypto platform.


ParaSwap

ParaSwap is a versatile DEX aggregator supporting Ethereum, Binance, Polygon, and Avalanche blockchains. In addition, it has a native token for liquidity and governance purposes called the PSP.

While it is one of the more feature-packed and beginner-friendly DEX aggregators, ParaSwap is still in the growth phase. In 2021, the platform reported 1.4 million total users over time, with daily transaction volumes peaking around $150 million.

ParaSwap allows you access to swap and payment options across 75 DEX platforms, focusing on better market rates and cheaper gas fees. In addition, decentralized applications (dApps) can also integrate with ParaSwap to better streamline token swaps.


Matcha

Like 1Inch and Slingshot, Matcha is both a DEX aggregator and a decentralized exchange in itself. Powered by 0x Labs, the platform focuses on transparency, lower fees, smart order routing, and easier access.

Thanks to a recent partnership with MoonPay, Matcha can now accept payments in fiat currencies, a first for DEX platforms. This could be very useful for newcomers – you can directly purchase cryptos using regular currency on Matcha and start trading immediately.

Matcha provides access to over 50 liquidity sources and DEX platforms across three blockchain systems – Ethereum, Binance, and Polygon. Despite being one of the younger platforms on this list (launched in 2020), Matcha boasts over 2.5k daily traders. Its daily volumes are close to $150 million.


Uniswap V3

Uniswap is a DEX platform based on the Automated Marker Maker (AMM) model. After its launch in November 2018, the DEX has seen a meteoric rise among crypto circles. As of Q4 2021, it routinely tops the charts of DEX platforms with the largest daily volumes with $5.5 billion.

The platform is currently in its third iteration – Uniswap V3. Based on the Ethereum Blockchain, Uniswap gives you access to over 50 liquidity pools, with 285 cryptocurrencies across more than 350 markets. The USDC-ETH pair alone accounts for over $1.8 billion worth of trades each day.

While not a DEX aggregator per se, Uniswap is still a great option to consider due to its sheer size and reach. Most of the other aggregators on this list have Uniswap as a major partner and source of trading options.


PancakeSwap

PancakeSwap launched in 2020 to work like Uniswap, but on the Binance Smart Chain instead of Ethereum. Like Uniswap, PancakeSwap is a DEX platform with an AMM operating model, with an additional focus on yield farming based on the native CAKE token.

Regardless of the sweet and syrupy “cake” theme, PancakeSwap is a major force on the DeFi scene, thanks to the sheer size of the Binance blockchain. It easily slots into the top three most active DEX platforms, with daily volumes exceeding $2.6 billion.

The platform is user-friendly, with detailed community guides, troubleshooting articles, and customer support. In addition, you can trade in over 30 major cryptos backed by an equal number of high-quality liquidity pools.


SushiSwap

Is based directly on Uniswap, with a fork in the original code created by its anonymous developer who goes by the pseudonym Chef Nomi.

Right from the outset, SushiSwap has courted controversy. To generate liquidity, its founder encouraged users to deposit in Uniswap tokens, leeching away almost $810 million from Uniswap in a “vampire attack.”

Chef Nomi then proceeded to withdraw his liquidity from the project, generating a massive controversy. Ultimately, he backtracked and returned all funds, relinquishing his control over the project to a new team.

Since these early missteps, SushiSwap has maintained healthy growth rates in the crowded arena of Ethereum-based DEX/AMM platforms. It currently ranks in the top ten list, with daily volumes of close to $800 million across 400+ markets.


dYdX

dYdX is a major DEX platform with a heavy focus on reducing the inflated gas prices on Ethereum. It is one of the few platforms to offer gasless deposits to new users who deposit above a certain threshold. The platform has plans to make this a permanent feature.

dYdX is also working closely with StarkWare to deploy a Layer 2 scalability engine designed to reduce gas costs and trading fees further. Using Ethereum Smart Contracts, dYdX enables traders to invest in the crypto-equivalent of futures trading and other derivatives.

Due to its unique position on the Ethereum ecosystem, dYdX has managed to gain ground on other more popular DEX platforms like Uniswap. As a result, at the end of 2021, dYdX is ranked second on the list of the most active DEX platforms, with daily volumes of $5.4 billion.


Raydium

Instead of Ethereum or Binance, the Raydium platform operates on the highly promising Solana blockchain. As a result, the Ethereum-competitor has a vibrant developer ecosystem, and its cryptocurrency has grown at least 16,000% since January 2021.

The increased interest in the Solana blockchain has also helped Raydium, an AMM platform based on the Serum DEX.

The platform gives access to over 430 trading pairs, with Solana-USDT being the most popular.

The native token, also called Raydium, is the foundation of all future apps and projects on the Solana and Serum ecosystems.

The project’s primary focus is to function as the engine of DeFi on Solana. However, with current daily volumes already reaching $300 million, Raydium shows a lot of promise for future growth.


TraderJoe

Launched in 2020 as a less expensive, more efficient alternative to Ethereum,  Avalanche blockchain focuses on decentralized apps.

Its AVAX token has hit all-time high demands in late 2021, thanks to positive media coverage and high-profile partnerships with entities like Deloitte.

This surge has also propelled TraderJoe, the major DEX platform based around Avalanche blockchain, to the top of the DEX pile in recent times. Its pole position in the blockchain ecosystem has helped drive TraderJoe’s daily trades close to $1 billion.

You can trade major cryptos, stake and gain the native JOE token as rewards, lend other cryptos and farm yields on the TraderJoe platform. With low fees and over 170 markets, TraderJoe is a top target for anyone interested in the Avalanche ecosystem.


Top Pick: Uniswap

The Top pick is Uniswap, for its deep liquidity pools, its user-friendliness, and its commitment to continuous innovation.

As the various DeFi ecosystems continue to grow and expand, the importance of DEX aggregators and AMM platforms will increase further.

These platforms serve a vital purpose, finding liquidity and facilitating transactional activity across multiple blockchains.

To say that the future of DeFi, and by extension, the future of finance as we know it, hinges on DEX aggregators would not be an overstatement.


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Vires In Numeris

Vires In Numeris

” It isn’t obvious that the world had to work this way.

But somehow the universe smiles on encryption.”

Julian Assange

Nobody yet knows for sure if the universe’s smile is genuine or not.

It is possible that our assumption of mathematical asymmetries is wrong and we find that P actually equals NP, or we find surprisingly quick solutions to specific problems which we currently assume to be hard.

If that should be the case, cryptography as we know it will cease to exist, and the implications would most likely change the world beyond recognition.

Vires in Numeris”

=

“Strength in Numbers”

epii

Vires in numeris is not only a catchy motto used by bitcoiners.

The realization that there is an unfathomable strength to be found in numbers is a profound one.

Understanding this, and the inversion of existing power balances which it enables changed my view of the world and the future which lies ahead of us.

One direct result of this is the fact that you don’t have to ask anyone for permission to participate in Bitcoin.

There is no page to sign up, no company in charge, no government agency to send application forms to.

Simply generate a large number and you are pretty much good to go.

The central authority of account creation is mathematics.

And God only knows who is in charge of that.

Elliptic curve examples (cc-by-sa Emmanuel Boutet)

Bitcoin is built upon our best understanding of reality.

While there are still many open problems in physics, computer science, and mathematics, we are pretty sure about some things.

That there is an asymmetry between finding solutions and validating the correctness of these solutions is one such thing.

That computation needs energy is another one.

In other words: finding a needle in a haystack is harder than checking if the pointy thing in your hand is indeed a needle or not.

And finding the needle takes work.

The vastness of Bitcoin’s address space is truly mind-boggling.

The number of private keys even more so. It is fascinating how much of our modern world boils down to the improbability of finding a needle in an unfathomably large haystack.

I am now more aware of this fact than ever.

Bitcoin taught me that there is strength in numbers.

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