First Time/Small Miner

First time/Small miner reference
for getting started.

If you want to start mining here is what you need… and what you need to know.

This is written for home miners/small farms, but can be used as a guideline for most operations. Use this as a reference for what you need to research, or what questions you need to ask before jumping in.

What you need to mine can be broken down into the following categories:

  • Hardware
  • Electricity
  • Location
  • Internet connection
  • Information

Mining BITCOIN is done exclusively with dedicated BITCOIN mining hardware based on ASICs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application-specific_integrated_circuit .

You CAN NOT meaningfully mine bitcoin today with CPU, GPU or even FPGAs. Bitcoin difficulty adapts to match the amount of mining done on the network and has reached levels trillions of times too high to mine meaningfully with PCs, laptops, tablets, phones, webpages, javascript, GPUs, and even generalised SHA hardware.

Even if you combined all the computers in the world, including all known supercomputer, you would not even approach 0.1% of the bitcoin hashrate today.

There isn’t any point attempting to mine bitcoin with CPU or GPU even in the interests of learning as it shares almost nothing with how bitcoin is mined with ASICs and will not teach you anything.

Hardware

Asic Miner:

Here is a list of the companies currently manufacturing Miners for public purchase.

Each one has their Pro’s and Con’s it is up to you to do your research and decide what is best for you.

A few points to consider while researching are :

  • efficiency
  • reliability
  • warranty period/policy
  • power draw

Each company has a different way of handling warranty repairs, depending on your situation and the policy repairs can become cost prohibitive. I will touch more on efficiency and power draw in the electricity section.

• Current list of competitive hardware

Power supply: You will need to purchase a power supply to run your miners. You will find ATX and Server grade PSU’s, the latter being preferred for mining BTC. 

When it comes to selecting a PSU purchase something with a capacity 25% higher than your miner is rated to draw. This will have you operating within the 80% rule.(explained further in the electricity section)

EX. Miner draws 1000 PSU should be able to provide 1250W.

** Many current generation miners are now being manufactured with Integrated PSU. Again do your research to see if your unit comes with or without. Generally you will still need to source a power cable.**

Auxilliaries – Avalon miners require an external controller, 1 per 20 miners. You may have to run additional fans for intake and exhaust depending on your location.

PSU’s can be purchased large enough to run 2 Miners; or the opposite 1 Miner fed by 2 PSU’s. Ensure the PSU you have selected will have the correct amount of PCI-E connectors required to operate your miner(s)

You can also find a large supply of used miners and PSU’s. Again it’s up to you to do your research as these often are a no return transaction.

Electricity

Follow all local codes and regulations

This is the number 1 factor in whether mining is right for you. As discussed with Miners being a 24/7 machine drawing power those costs will make it cost prohibitive for some people to mine. You need to be aware of what your costs/kWh are and run the numbers.

This will be done in a profitability calculator. This is just an example of 1 there are many out there.

( Miner usage in kW ) * ( Hours run per day ) 24 * ( Cost/kWh ) = Cost per Day to Operate

( Ideally less than the FIAT value of BTC mined )

The second part to the electrical requirements of mining is the available service; written for North America.

You will need to figure out the amperage you can spare, what circuits and receptacles you have in place, are you setting up on 220V or 110V. You will need to make sure that you have the right cord end for your PSU to match the receptacle, picking the wrong one can cost you a few days of mining if it has to be shipped.

If you can try and set up on a 220V circuit for 2 reasons :

– You will pull half the amps, and it is more efficient.

– Doing so requires 2 breaker spaces in your panel. Breaker sizing will depend on how many miners you plan to run. Here is the formula for calculating amps.

Watts / Voltage = Amps

Here is where you will bring the 80% rule back into play by sizing the continuous miner load to 80% of the breaker rating. 12 Amps on a 15 Amp breaker, 16 Amps max on a 20 Amp breaker, 24 Amps on a 30 amp breaker.

If/when you increase the amount of miners you are running you may want to look into PDU’s, as opposed to more receptacles. 

Location

This is something that is often overlooked to the headache and frustration of many would be miners. These machines are loud and hot .
You essentially have an electric heater that also uses an industrial fan to keep it from melting itself. This space will need to have the electrical requirements as discussed previously.

So make sure you have a space that is well ventilated with a plan to exhaust heat, and bring in fresh dust free air. I say this as using AC to cool the room will eat into your profits and may even make mining unprofitable.

The noise issue is a consideration you can sort out depending on whats available. (garage, basement, remote building)

Both of these issues can be handled with hosting, which is further explained in the information section.

Internet connection

Some miner setups have the option to use wifi. It is advisable to use a wired connection where available. This will provide a more stable connection and ensure you are submitting the expected amount of shares which is directly related to your payouts.

Please note that mining uses a negligible amount of bandwidth, and will not affect your other internet usage.

Information

You can use this information in this post as a good baseline to get you going. In addition to this you will want to research network difficulty; this readjusts every 2016 blocks to maintain a 10 minute block time on average. While this can go down it generally increases.

Solo or Pool?

You can solo mine but this is essentially a lottery even as a large scale miner. Should you chose this you can check this out as a starting point.

solo.ckpool.org 1% fee solo mining USA/DE 250 blocks solved!

Odds are most of you will join a pool. I will only say that it is in your best interest to mine at a pool that pays transaction fees (miner rewards). Then you will want to consider the fees associated with the pool.

When it comes to these pools you want them to be large enough that they are getting at least 1 block every Difficulty adjustment period. Larger pools will offer smaller rewards paid out more frequently, and vice versa.





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Hope you are all well and safe in these troubled times we live on this beautiful planet of ours !

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Bitcoin mining and the Luck Statistic



Bitcoin Mining and the Luck Statistic


• 0. Introduction

My aim is for any brand new miner to be able to determine just how unlikely any run of bad luck is, and so reduce the overall level of panic amongst miners.

Mining panic has been exacerbated by reports of accidental block withholding attacks, and a stratum vulnerability.

Wouldn’t you prefer to know if your panic was actually warranted? 


• 1. Gambler’s fallacy

For miners who have been around for more than a year or two seen good and bad luck (unless they mine at a “Pay per share” pool, in which case they are not subject to luck at all) and know that it will even out in the long term.

However, every new miner striking a run of bad luck will flail around, looking to escape to another pool that is not having bad luck. This sort of response to random events can be thought of as a type of gambler’s fallacy. 


• 2. Bad Luck lasts longer

Another reason that makes us mis-judge mining luck is that when we mine, we mostly experience bad luck.

In fact if you go to the trouble of working it out, your hours of mining will be about one-quarter good luck and three quarters bad luck. Why? Bad luck takes longer, good luck rounds take much less time. 


• 3. Assessing luck over time instead of blocks

Another mistake made by novice miners is to assume that the extremes of luck will be the same for all pool over any time frame. This is wrong for two related reasons:

The more blocks are solved the closer luck approaches 100%

Because the timeframe for luck to to approach 100% varies depending on number of blocks solved, comparing various pools’ luck over the same time period is invalid. Instead we need to compare luck over similar number of blocks.


• 4. The luck statistic, the Erlang distribution, PDFs and CDFs

I’ll try to avoid terms like “variance” and “median” and “maths” in order to not scare away too many readers, but we do need a definition:

Luck = Mean (expected shares per round / actual shares per round)

Luck statistic = mean (actual shares per round / expected shares per round

i.e. Luck = 1/Luck statistic

I would much rather just refer to the ‘Luck statistic’ as luck, but due to our psychological preference to assign luck a scale where bigger is better, we need both measures – “Luck” as a shorthand for “How much am I earning as a percent of what I expect to earn”, and the “Luck” statistic. Just keep in mind the larger the ‘luck’ statistic, the worse the ‘luck’.

The luck statistic is negative binomially distributed, but can be very closely approximated by a known and well understood distribution ( Erlang distribution ) which makes calculating probabilities simpler. 

The approximation becomes more accurate as difficulty increases – think of Euler’s (1 + 1/n)^n approximation to e as the comparison of an exponentially distributed random variable (Erlang distribution shape parameter = 1) and a geometrically distributed random variable (Negative binomial distribution, size parameter = 1, probability = 1/n). 

In case you’re worried about the approximation leading to significant error, at current difficulty you’ll won’t see a probability error greater than 0.0000000001.

Visualising the Erlang distribution:

The PDF is the probability density function, which indicates how probable it is that the luck statistic will be some arbitrary value.  

The CDF is the cumulative distribution function, which indicates how probable it is that the luck statistic will be greater than or equal to arbitrary value.

Both plots illustrate:

The luck statistic tends closer to 1.0 as the number of blocks over which the statistic is averaged increases

Extremes of luck are more likely when the luck statistic is averaged over fewer blocks.


• 5. Managing Income Variance

Luck averaged over more blocks means fewer extremes, so more blocks in less time means as a miner you will experience less variation in payout – but also means that you’ll be increasing the size of pools that are already large.

You can avoid this by adjusting your timescale expectations – try to focus on weekly income, or income per retarget and you’ll be less affected by income variations. Wait about one hundred blocks and income will be around +/- 20% of expected.

Your other option is to mine at a pool that has a pay per share (PPS) reward method, but this has a couple of downsides. The first is that since the pool is smoothing out the income variations for you, if they don’t manage that risk properly they could bankrupt themselves, and leaving you with lost income. The other problem is that since PPS is risky not many pools want to provide it so you won’t have many options about where you can mine.

• 6. How can you calculate the CDF probability yourself?

If you want to manage your expectations without using a PPS pool you need to know what to expect. Not just the reward per share but the typical range of values you might encounter in some time frame. So, how can you calculate the CDF probability yourself? If you have some experience with statistics or coding knowledge can use R or mathematica  or even python, but you can also use the Wolfram Alpha website. By entering the luck statistic and the number of blocks over which the statistic was averaged, you get the lower tail probability of that statistic occurring.

CDF [ErlangDistribution[nblocks, nblocks], luck statistic]

For example, if the luck statistic was 1.1 over one hundred blocks is that quite unlucky or just a little unlucky? Enter: 

CDF [ErlangDistribution[100, 100], 1.1]
The result is 0.84, so for 84 times out of one hundred re-runs of one blocks, we’d see luckier blocks. Not that unlucky – 1 in every six re-runs would be unluckier. 

• 6. How can you calculate the probable luck outcomes yourself?

Rather than assess how lucky or unlucky your pool has been, planning requires you to  estimate how unlucky is could be in future. Let’s say you plan to be able to manage a monthly worst case of 0.999 (one one in a thousand re-runs of the months blocks would be worse), and your expect your pool to solve around 50 blocks in that time.

quantile(ErlangDistribution[50, 50], 0.999)
This results in a luck statistic of ~1.495, or a luck of 1/1.495 = 66.9%


• 7. I need something easier.
Or less statisticky, anyway.

OK, I hear you. My fun != your fun. This chart gives you the expected luck percentage (and it’s all bad luck) for bad luck with a 1/3 chance of that luck or worse occurring (not very unlucky) to bad luck with a 1/10000 chance of that luck or worse occurring (really quite unlucky). Use it to either plan for the future or get an idea of how lucky you’ve been.

For example, my pool solves ten blocks at a luck of 80%, is that really bad? Not really. It’ll happen around 20% of the time (1/5 chance of that luck or worse occurring). Maybe I just want to make sure I can cope with a 1/thousand bad luck run of five hundred blocks (~67.5%).


8. Summary

Variance in income reduces as a function of number of blocks solved.

Variance in income is not a function of time.

Learn how to plan for bad luck, and to check that your pool’s luck is not impossibly bad.

organofcorti.blogspot.com is a reader supported blog:

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Best Pool Rules






Best Pool Rules

In my opinion, more or less in order:

1)  Lowest fees

1a)  Shares transaction fees

1b)  Any pool that does NOT share transaction fees should be rejected from consideration (which, unfortunately, is most, if not all, Chinese based pools)

2)  Reasonable variance – You need to get paid often enough to be happy. This is a tough one.

Variance is the close cousin to “Luck”.

The luckier a pool is, the more blocks it finds relative to its hashing speed, and the less variance it will have.  But its not a real thing!  “Luck” could change any microsecond.
 “Luck” is just mathematical statistics – over a long enough time period, all pools will average out to 100% luck.


Luck Statistik for 14 Blocks

You need to understand Variance:

A big pool finds more blocks, but distributes the earnings out to more miners.  

A small pool is just the reverse:  it finds fewer blocks, but pays those earnings to fewer people. Over the long run, Rule #1, well, rules.

3)  Wind-up/Wind-down time – Most pools use some leveling algorithm.

4)  User Interface – That doesn’t matter much if you have a few miners.  If you have hundreds, the difference can be thousands of dollars a Year.

Notes:

A) In the long run #2 & #3 really don’t matter much.  Both pools show your hashing rate in minutes, payouts just lag on Kano compared to Slushpool, but would continue longer if you changed in the future

B) Bigger is not better.  Sure Antpool is #1 in size, in no small part to Bitmain using their own pool (no fees for them!).   Your profit will be determined mostly by rule #1 – lower fees mean more profit.

C) More, smaller, pools is healthier for the blockchain.  If you can live with the variance, support the pool with the longest average payout you are happy with.

D) For pools with long ramp up times that are relatively small, like Kano, you MIGHT suffer due to difficulty changes while you ramp up.

For smaller pools, make sure you understand what happens to your efforts (based on their scoring system) when a difficulty change occurs.






The Laws are Unjust

As we’ve seen over the many years that this rag has been written (and beyond) companies who are able to fund whole teams dedicated to data security have been wholly ineffective at storing that data safely.

With the passage of this new law EU officials are actively putting citizens in harm’s way by irresponsibly trying to force bitcoin users to collect and store each other’s data. This is if you believe that is the actual intention behind this move.

In reality, this move likely serves as a pure intimidation tactic to coerce people to use trusted third parties when transacting with bitcoin.

A heavy handed shove into easily controlled vectors. If too many users are in control of their own private keys, run their own nodes, and are up to date on best privacy practices when transacting it is much harder to stop bitcoin.

And make no mistake, these people want to stop bitcoin at all costs.

They do not want you to be free.

They are quickly losing their grasp of control on the populace and they are moving as quickly as possible to clamp down in an attempt to retain control.

You are not meant to have privacy in their eyes. You are inherently a criminal in their eyes. These people think you are disgusting cattle who needs to be led at every turn.

It does not have to be this way. You do not have to succumb to the madness of these people. All it takes are a few decisions.


Speak up!

Act!

Disobey!


There is a silent majority out there who knows this type of attempted control is inherently wrong.


It is anti-human!

It is evil!


This silent majority needs to begin developing the courage to speak up.

Call out the abject insanity of allowing unelected institutions like the Financial Action Task Force write freedom restricting guidelines that get adopted by governments like the EU.

Learn how to run your own node, how to produce your own private/public key pairs, and how to destroy chain analysis heuristics with privacy best practices.


Make the tyrant’s job as hard as possible!

Disobey!


Stand up and defend freedom in the Digital Age by actively defying their unjust laws.


“If a law is unjust, a man is not only right to disobey it, he obligated to do so.”


It is your duty as an individual to disobey these incredibly invasive and tyrannical “laws”.

If you don’t disobey your progeny may not have the opportunity to. The time to counter punch is right now. Get on it.


Source: https://tftc.io/








The monetary properties of Bitcoin


bitcoin vs gold

bitcoin vs fiat

Bitcoin is a monetary good — a new form of money. As Bitcoin is a money, it must be compared to other monies to consider the comparative advantages of Bitcoin and from that consider further the probabilities of Bitcoin winning ground or not in the competition between monies.

Brief summarization of the monetary properties

Summarization of the monetary properties of Bitcoin compared to precious metals and fiat currencies

As the exhibit above showcases, Bitcoin offers many different distinct and compelling competitive advantages to the alternatives.

These include, but are not limited to:

1. Bitcoin is the first asset in the human history to provide any holder a very sure case of unseizability and censorship- and judgment-resistance for their funds.

Unseizability: With precious metals and fiat currencies, the custodianship is mostly in the hands of trusted custodians that is subject to any intervention by a government or authority.

Bitcoin, with self-custody being orders of magnitude easier than with precious metals and fiat currencies, and access to the corresponding private key of funds being the sole way to access and move funds, no one can seize your bitcoins.

Censorship- and judgment resistance: With precious metals and fiat currencies, the payment clearing for small value transactions can with not much hassle be somewhat censorship resistant if the involved parties are willing to transact in the physical units of precious metals and fiat currencies and to self-custody the funds going forward.

However, with non-small value transactions it is exceedingly inconvenient and costly for transactions of precious metals and fiat currencies to happen in the offline, with physical units and self-custody going forward, leaving the centralized intermediaries as the only option and these are subject to any intervention by a government or authority.

Bitcoin, with the payment clearing involving no centralized intermediaries but instead a decentralized and distributed setup requiring no AML/KYC, the result is that of a the payment clearing process being permissionless, allowing anyone with cryptographic access to funds to move them at their will.

2. Bitcoin provides an inherently apolitical global monetary unit. It is truly border-less, with no recognition of any jurisdictional rules and laws, allowing the jurisdiction of a counterpart in any transaction to be of no relevance.

◦ Fiat currencies are highly political and precious metals are less political than fiat currencies, but still much more political than Bitcoin.

◦ Bitcoin is truly border-less: any bitcoin funds can be accessed anywhere on the planet by having access to information that can even be stored inside a human brain and reliably retrieved at small effort — and, crucially, with no intermediary and no permission required the bitcoin funds can be moved to anywhere in the world with final settlement in the next block.

3. Bitcoin provides scarcity and salability through time characteristics vastly superior to any other monetary options, including fiat currencies and precious metals.

◦ The non-discretionary monetary policy of the bitcoin networking allowing for the asymptotic money supply* of 21 million BTC is built into the literal definition of the protocol. This is a drastic contrast to the arbitrary scarcity of fiat currencies governed by politics.

The scarcity of precious metals is much better than fiat currencies, but Bitcoin with the strictly fixed money supply outperforms any precious metal.

Bitcoin provides any holder a reassurance stronger than any other asset in the world that their ownership stake in the total quantity of Bitcoin on the market will never diluted.

One BTC of 21 million will always be one BTC of 21 million.

◦ Bitcoins are infinitely durable, impossible to counterfeit or dilute, can be stored at no cost and at no degradation.


* By inventing Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto created the first example of a digital good (in this case, monetary good) that is impossible to reproduce ad infinitum, thereby creating the first instance of human history of digital scarcity.

Less talked about it, but perhaps more important, Satoshi Nakamoto with Bitcoin also created the first example of a good being absolute scarce.

Previously, any consideration of scarcity of a good was relative. Any physical good is never absolutely scarce, onlyrelatively scarce when compared to other goods — simply because any limit on a physical goods is a function of the time and human effort put towards producing the good.

Bitcoin, with the asymptotic monetary supply built into the protocol, is therefore the first example of absolute scarcity in a liquid commodity and good that cannot have its fixed quantity of supply increased.


People’s Money

Power to the People

The seed has been planted
Make it Thrive !!!

Choose

Veritas non Auctoritas …

Choose Wisely




Peace not War

Peace not War

Fighting for Peace…

“Imagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace

You may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as one”

John Lennon, Imagine

“He who joyfully marches to music rank and file has already earned my contempt.

He has been given a large brain by mistake, since for him the spinal cord

would surely suffice.

This disgrace to civilization

should be done away with at once.

Heroism at command, senseless brutality, deplorable love-of-country stance and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism, how violently I hate all this, how despicable and ignoble war is;

I would rather be torn to shreds than be part of so base an action!

It is my conviction that killing

under the cloak of war is nothing

but an act of murder.”

Albert Einstein

“War is peace.
Freedom is slavery.
Ignorance is strength.”

George Orwell, “1984”

“I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.”

Albert Einstein

“Only the dead have seen the end of war.”

Plato

“The supreme art of war is to subdue         the enemy without fighting.”

Sun Tzu, “The Art of War”

Today the most civilized countries of the world spend a maximum of their income on war and a minimum on education.

The twenty-first century will

reverse this order.

It will be more glorious to fight against ignorance than to die on the field of battle.

The discovery of a new scientific truth

will be more important than the

squabbles of diplomats.

Even the newspapers of our own

day are beginning to treat scientific discoveries and the creation of fresh philosophical concepts as news.

The newspapers of the twenty-first century will give a mere ‘stick’ in the back pages to accounts of crime or political controversies, but will headline on the front pages the proclamation of a new scientific hypothesis.

Progress along such lines will be impossible while nations persist in the savage

practice of killing each other off.

I inherited from my father, an erudite

man who labored hard for peace,

an ineradicable hatred of war.

Nikola Tesla

“Older men declare war.

But it is youth that must fight and die.”

Herbert Hoover

“War does not determine who is right –   only who is left.”

Anonymous

“Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are

cold and are not clothed.

This world in arms is not

spending money alone.

It is spending the sweat of its laborers,

the genius of its scientists,

the hopes of its children.

This is not a way of life at all

in any true sense.

Under the clouds of war,

it is humanity hanging on a cross of iron.”

Dwight D. Eisenhower

“You can have peace.

Or you can have freedom.

Don’t ever count on having both at once.”

Robert A. Heinlein

“War is over … If you want it.”

John Lennon

“How is it possible to have a civil war?”

George Carlin

“It is not enough to win a war; it is more important to organize the peace.”

Aristotle

“They wrote in the old days that it is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country.

But in modern war, there is nothing

sweet nor fitting in your dying.

You will die like a dog

for no good reason.”

Ernest Hemingway

“In times of war, the law falls silent.”

Silent enim leges inter arma

Marcus Tullius Cicero

“The nuclear arms race is like two sworn enemies standing waist deep in gasoline, one with three matches, the other with five.”

Carl Sagan

“The human race is unimportant.

It is the self that must not be betrayed.”

“I suppose one could say that

Hitler didn’t betray his self.”

“You are right.

He did not.

But millions of Germans

did betray their selves.

That was the tragedy.

Not that one man had

the courage to be evil.

But that millions had not

the courage to be good.”

John Fowles, “The Magus”

“Fighting for peace, is like f***ing for chastity.”

Stephen King, “Hearts in Atlantis”

“I’m fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young men to die in.”

George McGovern

“Pacifism is objectively pro-fascist.

This is elementary common sense.

If you hamper the war effort of one side,

you automatically help out

that of the other.

Nor is there any real way

of remaining outside

such a war as the present one.

In practice, ‘he that is not with me

is against me’.”

George Orwell

“The essential act of war is destruction,

not necessarily of human lives,

but of the products of human labour.

War is a way of shattering to pieces,

or pouring into the stratosphere,

or sinking in the depths of the sea,

materials which might otherwise

be used to make the masses

too comfortable, and hence,

in the long run, too intelligent.”

George Orwell, “1984”

“Mankind must put an end to war – or war will put an end to mankind.”

[Address before the United Nations, September 25 1961]

John F. Kennedy

“Military men are just dumb, stupid animals to be used as pawns in foreign policy.”

Henry Kissinger

“In War: Resolution,
In Defeat: Defiance,
In Victory: Magnanimity
In Peace: Good Will.”

Winston S. Churchill, “The Second World War”

“this is the 21st century and we need

to redefine r/evolution.

this planet needs a people’s r/evolution.

a humanist r/evolution.

r/evolution is not about bloodshed or about going to the mountains and fighting.

we will fight if we are forced to

but the fundamental goal of

r/evolution must be peace.

we need a r/evolution of the mind.

we need a r/evolution of the heart.

we need a r/evolution of the spirit.

the power of the people is stronger

than any weapon.

a people’s r/evolution can’t be stopped.

we need to be weapons

of mass construction.

weapons of mass love.

it’s not enough just to change the system.

we need to change ourselves.

we have got to make this world

user friendly. user friendly.

are you ready to sacrifice

to end world hunger.

to sacrifice to end colonialism.

to end neo-colonialism.

to end racism.

to end sexism.

r/evolution means the end of exploitation.

r/evolution means respecting

people from other cultures.

r/evolution is creative.

r/evolution means treating your

mate as a friend and an equal.

r/evolution is sexy.

r/evolution means respecting and

learning from your children.

r/evolution is beautiful.

r/evolution means protecting

the people.

the plants. the animals. the air. the water.

r/evolution means saving this planet.

r/evolution is love.”

Assata Shakur

“After all, no one is stupid enough to prefer war to peace; in peace sons bury their fathers and in war fathers bury their sons.”

Herodotus

“Let my country die for me.”

James Joyce, “Ulysses”

If we really saw war,

what war does to young minds and bodies, it would be impossible to embrace the myth of war.

If we had to stand over the mangled corpses of schoolchildren killed in Afghanistan and listen to the wails of their parents, we would not be able to repeat clichés we use to justify war.

This is why war is carefully sanitized.

This is why we are given war’s perverse and dark thrill but are spared from seeing war’s consequences.

The mythic visions of war keep it heroic and entertaining…

The wounded, the crippled, and the dead are, in this great charade, swiftly carted offstage.

They are war’s refuse.

We do not see them.

We do not hear them.

They are doomed, like wandering spirits, to float around the edges of our consciousness, ignored, even reviled.

The message they tell is too painful for us to hear.

We prefer to celebrate ourselves and our nation by imbibing the myths of glory, honor, patriotism, and heroism, words that in combat become empty and meaningless.

Chris Hedges “Death of the Liberal Class”

“The ever more sophisticated weapons piling up in the arsenals of the wealthiest and the mightiest can kill the illiterate, the ill, the poor and the hungry, but they cannot kill ignorance, illness, poverty or hunger.”

Fidel Castro

For the whole earth is the tomb

of famous men; not only are they commemorated by columns

and inscriptions in their own country,

but in foreign lands there dwells also an unwritten memorial of them,

graven not on stone

but in the hearts of men.

Make them your examples, and,

esteeming courage to be freedom and freedom to be happiness,

do not weigh too nicely

the perils of war.”

[Funeral Oration of Pericles]

Thucydides, “History of the Peloponnesian War”

“War and drink are the two things

man is never too poor to buy.”

William Faulkner

For me, the most ironic token of

[the first human moon landing] is the plaque signed by President Richard M. Nixon that Apollo 11 took to the moon.

It reads:

“We came in peace for all Mankind.”

As the United States was dropping

7 ½ megatons of conventional

explosives on small nations

in Southeast Asia,

we congratulated ourselves on

our humanity.

We would harm no one on a lifeless rock.”

Carl Sagan, “Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space”

“This topic brings me to that

worst outcrop of herd life,

the military system, which I abhor…

This plague-spot of civilization ought

to be abolished with all possible speed.

Heroism on command,

senseless violence,

and all the loathsome nonsense that

goes by the name of patriotism —

how passionately I hate them!”

Albert Einstein

1. Bangladesh…. In 1971 … Kissinger overrode all advice in order to support

the Pakistani generals in both their

civilian massacre policy in East Bengal

and their armed attack on India

from West Pakistan….

This led to a moral and political catastrophe the effects of which are still sorely felt.

Kissinger’s undisclosed reason for the ‘tilt’ was the supposed but never materialised ‘brokerage’ offered by the dictator Yahya Khan in the course of secret diplomacy between Nixon and China….

Of the new state of Bangladesh,

Kissinger remarked coldly that it

was ‘a basket case’ before turning

his unsolicited expertise elsewhere.

2. Chile…. Kissinger had direct personal knowledge of the CIA’s plan to kidnap

and murder General René Schneider, the head of the Chilean Armed Forces … who refused to countenance military intervention in politics.

In his hatred for the Allende Government, Kissinger even outdid Richard Helms …

who warned him that a coup in such

a stable democracy would

be hard to procure.

The murder of Schneider nonetheless

went ahead, at Kissinger’s urging and

with American financing, just between Allende’s election and his confirmation….

This was one of the relatively few times

that Mr Kissinger (his success in getting people to call him ‘Doctor’ is greater

than that of most PhDs) involved himself

in the assassination of a single named individual rather than the slaughter

of anonymous thousands.

His jocular remark on this occasion—

‘I don’t see why we have to let a country

go Marxist just because its people

are irresponsible’—suggests he may

have been having the best of times….

3. Cyprus…. Kissinger approved of the preparations by Greek Cypriot fascists

for the murder of President Makarios,

and sanctioned the coup which tried

to extend the rule of the Athens junta

(a favoured client of his) to the island.

When despite great waste of life this coup failed in its objective, which was also Kissinger’s, of enforced partition, Kissinger promiscuously switched sides to support

an even bloodier intervention by Turkey.

Thomas Boyatt … went to Kissinger

in advance of the anti-Makarios

putsch and warned him that it

could lead to a civil war.

‘Spare me the civics lecture,’ replied Kissinger, who as you can readily see had an aphorism for all occasions.

4. Kurdistan. Having endorsed the covert policy of supporting a Kurdish revolt

in northern Iraq between 1974 and 1975, with ‘deniable’ assistance also provided

by Israel and the Shah of Iran, Kissinger made it plain to his subordinates that

the Kurds were not to be allowed to win,

but were to be employed for their

nuisance value alone.

They were not to be told that this was

the case, but soon found out when

the Shah and Saddam Hussein composed their differences, and American

aid to Kurdistan was cut off.

Hardened CIA hands went to Kissinger …

for an aid programme for the many thousands of Kurdish refugees

who were thus abruptly created….

The apercu of the day was: ‘foreign policy should not he confused with missionary work.’ Saddam Hussein heartily concurred.

5. East Timor. The day after Kissinger left Djakarta in 1975, the Armed Forces

of Indonesia employed American weapons to invade and subjugate the independent former Portuguese colony of East Timor.

Isaacson gives a figure of 100,000 deaths resulting from the occupation, or one-seventh of the population, and there

are good judges who put this

estimate on the low side.

Kissinger was furious when news of

his own collusion was leaked, because

as well as breaking international law

the Indonesians were also violating

an agreement with the United States….

Monroe Leigh … pointed out this awkward latter fact. Kissinger snapped: ‘The Israelis when they go into Lebanon—when was the last time we protested that?

A good question, even if it did not and

does not lie especially well in his mouth.

It goes on and on and on until one

cannot eat enough to vomit enough.”

Christopher Hitchens

“At one time I had given much thought

to why men were so very rarely

capable of living for an ideal.

Now I saw that many, no,

all men were capable of dying for one.”

Hermann Hesse, “Demian: Die Geschichte von Emil Sinclairs Jugend”

“We need to decide that we will not go to war, whatever reason is conjured up by the politicians or the media, because war in our time is always indiscriminate, a war against innocents, a war against children.”

Howard Zinn

All wars are sacred,” he said.

“To those who have to fight them.

If the people who started wars

didn’t make them sacred, who would be

foolish enough to fight?

But, no matter what rallying cries

the orators give to the idiots who fight,

no matter what noble purposes they

assign to wars, there is never but

one reason for a war.

And that is money.

All wars are in reality money squabbles.

But so few people ever realize it.

Their ears are too full of bugles

and drums and the fine words

from stay-at-home orators.

Sometimes the rallying cry is

’save the Tomb of Christ from the Heathen!’

Sometimes it’s ’down with Popery!’

and sometimes ‘Liberty!’

and sometimes

‘Cotton, Slavery and States’ Rights!”

Margaret Mitchell, “Gone with the Wind”

“The most dangerous people in the world are not the tiny minority instigating evil acts, but those who do the acts for them.

For example, when the British

invaded India, many Indians accepted

to work for the British to kill off

Indians who resisted their occupation.

So in other words, many Indians were

hired to kill other Indians on behalf

of the enemy for a paycheck.

Today, we have mercenaries in Africa, corporate armies from the western world, and unemployed men throughout the Middle East killing their own people – and people of other nations – for a paycheck.

To act without a conscience,

but for a paycheck,

makes anyone a dangerous animal.

The devil would be powerless

if he couldn’t entice people

to do his work.

So as long as money continues to seduce

the hungry, the hopeless, the broken,

the greedy, and the needy,

there will always be

war between brothers.”

Suzy Kassem

“Peace is such hard work.

Harder than war.

It takes way more effort

to forgive than to kill.”

Rae Carson, “The Bitter Kingdom” (Fire and Thorns, #3)

“An unjust law is itself a species of violence.

Arrest for its breach is more so.

Now the law of nonviolence says that violence should be resisted not by counter-violence but by nonviolence.

This I do by breaking the law and by peacefully submitting to arrest and imprisonment.”

Mahatma Gandhi, “Non-violence in Peace and War” 1942-1949

“Civilized society is perpetually menaced with disintegration through this primary hostility of men towards one another.”

Sigmund Freud

“In war,

the strong make slaves of the weak,

and in peace,

the rich makes slaves of the poor.”

Oscar Wilde

“So it is the human condition that to wish for the greatness of one’s fatherland

is to wish evil to one’s neighbors.

The citizen of the universe would be

the man who wishes his country never to be either greater or smaller, richer or poorer.”

Voltaire, “Philosophical Dictionary”

“A democracy which makes or even effectively prepares for modern,

scientific war must necessarily

cease to be democratic.

No country can be really well

prepared for modern war unless

it is governed by a tyrant,

at the head of a highly trained

and perfectly obedient bureaucracy.”

Aldous Huxley, “Ends and Means”

“War may sometimes be a necessary evil.

But no matter how necessary,

it is always an evil, never a good.

We will not learn to live together in peace

by killing each other’s children.”

Jimmy Carter, “The Nobel Peace Prize Lecture”

“The most disadvantageous peace

is better than the most just war.”

Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, “Adagia. Lateinisch / Deutsch”

“I prefer the most unfair peace

to the most righteous war.”

Cicero

“War is not the answer,

for only love can conquer hate.”

Marvin Gaye

“A weapon does not decide

whether or not to kill.

A weapon is a manifestation of a decision that has already been made.”

Steven Galloway, “The Cellist of Sarajevo”

“There has never been a just [war],

never an honorable one —

on the part of the instigator of the war.

I can see a million years ahead,

and this rule will never change

in so many as half a dozen instances.

The loud little handful — as usual —

will shout for the war.

The pulpit will–warily and cautiously–object–at first;

the great, big, dull bulk of the nation

will rub its sleepy eyes and try to

make out why there should be a war,

and will say, earnestly and indignantly,

‘It is unjust and dishonorable,

and there is no necessity for it.

‘ Then the handful will shout louder.

A few fair men on the other side will

argue and reason against the war with speech and pen, and at first will have a hearing and be applauded; but it will not last long; those others will outshout them, and presently the anti-war audiences will thin out and lose popularity.

Before long you will see this curious thing: the speakers stoned from the platform,

and free speech strangled by hordes of furious men who in their secret hearts are still at one with those stoned speakers–as earlier–but do not dare say so.

And now the whole nation–pulpit and all–will take up the war-cry, and shout

itself hoarse, and mob any honest man

who ventures to open his mouth;

and presently such mouths

will cease to open.

Next the statesmen will invent cheap lies, putting the blame upon the nation that is attacked, and every man will be glad of those conscience-soothing falsities,

and will diligently study them, and refuse

to examine any refutations of them;

and thus he will by and by convince

himself the war is just,

and will thank God

for the better sleep he enjoys

after this process of

grotesque self-deception.”

Mark Twain, “The Mysterious Stranger and Other Stories”

“We often think of peace

as the absence of war,

that if powerful countries

would reduce their weapon arsenals,

we could have peace.

But if we look deeply into the weapons,

we see our own minds – our own

prejudices, fears and ignorance.

Even if we transport all the bombs

to the moon, the roots of war

and the roots of bombs are still there,

in our hearts and minds,

and sooner or later we will

make new bombs.

To work for peace is to uproot war from ourselves and from the hearts

of men and women.

To prepare for war,

to give millions of men and women

the opportunity to practice killing

day and night in their hearts,

is to plant millions of seeds of violence, anger, frustration, and fear that will be passed on for generations to come.”

Thich Nhat Hanh, “Living Buddha, Living Christ”

“There are seasons of our lives when nothing seems to be happening, when no smoke betrays a burned town or homestead and few tears are shed for the newly dead.

I have learned not to trust those times, because if the world is at peace then it means someone is planning war.”

Bernard Cornwell, “Death of Kings” (The Saxon Stories, #6)

“That there are men in all countries

who get their living by war,

and by keeping up the quarrels

of Nations is as shocking as it is true…”

Thomas Paine

“The real power in America is held by a fast-emerging new Oligarchy of pimps

and preachers who see no need for Democracy or fairness or even trees,

except maybe the ones in their own yards, and they don’t mind admitting it.

They worship money and power and death.

Their ideal solution to all the

nation’s problems would be

another 100 Year War.”

Hunter S. Thompson, “Kingdom of Fear: Loathsome Secrets of a Star-Crossed Child in the Final Days of the American Century”


“Once war becomes a clash of absolutes, there is no breathing room for mercy.

Absolute truth is blind truth.”

Deepak Chopra, “The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore”

“What is so often said about the solders

of the 20th century is that the

fought to make us free.

Which is a wonderful sentiment and

one witch should evoke tremendous gratitude if in fact there was a shred

of truth in that statement but,

it’s not true.

It’s not even close to true

in fact it’s the opposite of truth.

There’s this myth around that people believe that the way to honor deaths of so many of millions of people; that the way to honor is to say that we achieved some tangible, positive, good, out of their death’s.

That’s how we are supposed to

honor their deaths.

We can try and rescue some positive

and forward momentum of human progress, of human virtue from these hundreds of millions of death’s but we

don’t do it by pretending that they’d died

to set us free because we are less free;

far less free now then we were

before these slaughters began.

These people did not die to set us free.

They did not die fighting any enemy

other than the ones that the

previous deaths created.

The beginning of wisdom is to call

things by their proper names.

Solders are paid killers, and I say this

with a great degree of sympathy to young men and women who are suckered into

a life of evil through propaganda and the labeling of heroic to a man in costume who kills for money and the life of honor is accepting ordered killings for money, prestige, and pensions.

We create the possibility of moral choice

by communicating truth

about ethics to people.

That to me is where real heroism

and real respect for the dead lies.

Real respect for the dead lies in exhuming the corpses and hearing what they would say if they could speak out; and they

would say: If any ask us why we died tell

it’s because our fathers lied, tell them it’s because we were told that charging up a hill and slaughtering our fellow man was heroic, noble, and honorable.

But these hundreds of millions of ghosts encircled the world in agony, remorse

will not be released from our collective unconscious until we lay the truth of

their murders on the table and look

at the horror that is the lie;

that murder for money can be moral, that murder for prestige can be moral.

These poor young men and woman propagandized into an undead ethical status lied to about what is noble,

virtuous, courageous, honorable, decent, and good to the point that they’re rolling hand grenades into children’s rooms and the illusion that, that is going to make the world a better place.

We have to stare this in the face if we want to remember why these people died. They did not die to set us free. They did not die to make the world a better place. They died because we are ruled by sociopaths. The only thing that can create a better world is the truth is the virtue is the honor and courage of standing up to the genocidal lies of mankind and calling them lies and ultimate corruptions.

The trauma and horrors of this century of staggering bloodshed of the brief respite of the 19th century. This addiction to blood and the idea that if we pour more bodies into the hole of the mass graves of the 20th century, if we pour more bodies and more blood we can build some sort of cathedral to a better place but it doesn’t happen. We can throw as many young men and woman as we want into this pit of slaughter and it will never be full. It will never do anything other than sink and recede further into the depths of hell. We can’t build a better world on bodies. We can’t build peace on blood. If we don’t look back and see the army of the dead of the 20th century calling out for us to see that they died to enslave us. That whenever there was a war the government grew and grew.

We are so addicted to this lie. What we need to do is remember that these bodies bury us. This ocean of blood that we create through the fantasy that violence brings virtue. It drowns us, drowns our children, our future, and the world. When we pour these endless young bodies into this pit of death; we follow it.”

Stefan Molyneux

“It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans

of the wounded who cry aloud for blood,

more vengeance, more desolation.

War is hell.”

William Tecumseh Sherman

Our enemies are Medes and Persians,

men who for centuries have lived

soft and luxurious lives;

we of Macedon for generations past

have been trained in the hard school

of danger and war.

Above all, we are free men,

and they are slaves.

There are Greek troops, to be sure, in Persian service — but how different

is their cause from ours!

They will be fighting for pay — and not much of at that; we, on the contrary,

shall fight for Greece, and our

hearts will be in it.

As for our foreign troops — Thracians, Paeonians, Illyrians, Agrianes — they

are the best and stoutest soldiers in Europe, and they will find as their opponents the slackest and softest of the tribes of Asia.

And what, finally, of the two men

in supreme command?

You have Alexander, they — Darius!”

Alexander the Great

“If I had known they were going to do this,

I would have become a shoemaker.”

Albert Einstein

“One question in my mind,

which I hardly dare mention in public,

is whether patriotism has, overall, been a force for good or evil in the world.

Patriotism is rampant in war and

there are some good things about it.

Just as self-respect and pride bring out the best in an individual, pride in family,

pride in teammates, pride in hometown bring out the best in groups of people.

War brings out the kind of pride in country that encourages its citizens in the direction of excellence and it encourages them

to be ready to die for it.

At no time do people work so well

together to achieve the same goal

as they do in wartime.

Maybe that’s enough to make patriotism eligible to be considered a virtue.

If only I could get out of my mind

the most patriotic people

who ever lived,

the Nazi Germans.”

Andy Rooney, “My War”

“My own concern is primarily the

terror and violence carried out by

my own state, for two reasons.

For one thing, because it happens to be the larger component of international violence.

But also for a much more important

reason than that; namely, I can

do something about it.

So even if the U.S. was responsible

for 2 percent of the violence in the

world instead of the majority of it,

it would be that 2 percent I would

be primarily responsible for.

And that is a simple ethical judgment.

That is, the ethical value of one’s actions depends on their anticipated

and predictable consequences.

It is very easy to denounce the

atrocities of someone else.

That has about as much ethical value

as denouncing atrocities that

took place in the 18th century.”

Noam Chomsky

“We are in the hands of men whose power and wealth have separated them

from the reality of daily life

and from the imagination.

We are right to be afraid.”

Grace Paley

“Wars of nations are fought

to change maps.

But wars of poverty are fought

to map change.”

Muhammad Ali

“What passing bells for these

who die as cattle?
Only the monstrous anger of the guns.
Only the stuttering rifle’s rapid rattle
Can patter out their hasty orisons.
No mockeries now for them;

no prayers, nor bells,
Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs,
The shrill demented choirs of wailing shells,
And bugles calling for them from sad shires.
What candles may be held

to speed them all?
Not in the hands of boys, but in their eyes,
Shall shine the holy glimmers of goodbyes.
The pallor of girls’ brows shall be their pall,
Their flowers the tenderness

of patient minds,
And each, slow dusk a drawing

down of blinds.”

Wilfred Owen, The War Poems

Millions of fathers in rain
Millions of mothers in pain
Millions of brothers in woe


Millions of sisters nowhere to go

Millions of daughters walk in the mud
Millions of children wash in the flood
A million girls vomit and groan
Millions of families hopeless alone”

Allen Ginsberg, “Poems”

“No honest journalist should be willing to describe himself or herself as ’embedded.’

To say, ‘I’m an embedded journalist’ is to say, ‘I’m a government Propagandist.”

Noam Chomsky, “Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World”

“Darwinism by itself did not produce the Holocaust, but without Darwinism…

neither Hitler nor his Nazi followers

would have had the necessary scientific underpinnings to convince themselves

and their collaborators that one

of the worlds greatest atrocities

was really morally praiseworthy.”

Richard Weikart, “From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany”

“War means fighting.

The business of the soldier is to fight.

Armies are not called out to dig trenches,

to throw up breastworks,to live in camps, but to find the enemy and strike him; to invade his country, and do him all possible damage in the shortest possible time.

This will involve great destruction of life and property while it lasts; but such a war will of necessity be of brief continuance,

and so would be an economy of life

and property in the end.”

Stonewall Jackson

“I have seen war.

I have seen war on land and sea.

I have seen blood running from

the wounded.

I have seen men coughing out their

gassed lungs.

I have seen the dead in the mud.

I have seen cities destroyed.

I have seen 200 limping, exhausted

men come out of line—the survivors

of a regiment of 1,000 that went

forward 48 hours before.

I have seen children starving.

I have seen the agony of mothers and wives.

I hate war.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt

“How is the world ruled and led to war?

Diplomats lie to journalists and believe these lies when they see them in print.”

Karl Kraus

“Each Javelin round costs $80,000, and

the idea that it’s fired by a guy who doesn’t make that in a year at a guy who doesn’t make that in a lifetime is somehow so outrageous it almost makes the

war seem winnable.”

Sebastian Junger, “War”

“But what are a hundred million deaths?

When one has served in a war, one hardly knows what a dead man is, after a while.

And since a dead man has no substance unless one has actually seen him dead,

a hundred million corpses broadcast through history are no more than a puff

of smoke in the imagination.”

Albert Camus

“I have never advocated war except

as means of peace, so seek peace,

but prepare for war.

Because war…

War never changes.

War is like winter and winter is coming.”

Ulysses S Grant

“I do not say that there is no glory

to be gained [in war];

but it is not personal glory.

In itself, no cause was ever more glorious than that of men who struggle, not to conquer territory, not to gather spoil,

not to gratify ambition, but for freedom,

for religion, for hearth and home, and to revenge the countless atrocities inflicted upon them by their oppressors.”

G. A. HENTY

“World War I was the most colossal, murderous, mismanaged butchery that

has ever taken place on earth.

Any writer who said otherwise lied,

So the writers either wrote propaganda, shut up, or fought.”

Ernest Hemingway

“In peace, children inter their parents;

war violates the order of nature and

causes parents to inter their children.”

Herodotus

“Perpetual peace is a futile dream.”

Gen. George S. Patton

“Such then is the human condition,

that to wish greatness for one’s country

is to wish harm to one’s neighbors.”

Voltaire

“It is precisely that requirement

of shared worship that has been the principal source of suffering for individual man and the human race since

the beginning of history.

In their efforts to impose universal worship, men have unsheathed their swords

and killed one another.

They have invented gods and challenged each other:

“Discard your gods and worship mine or

I will destroy both your gods and you!”

Fyodor Dostoyevsky, “The Brothers Karamazov”

What a terrible thing war is,

what a terrible thing!”

Leo Tolstoy, “War and Peace”

“When you think about new-born babies being killed in our own lifetime,’ he said,

‘all the efforts of culture seem worthless.

What have people learned from all

our Goethes and Bachs?

To kill babies?”

Vasily Grossman, “Life and Fate”

“Those of us who are most genuinely repelled by war and violence are also

those who are most likely to decide

that some things, after all,

are worth fighting for.”

Christopher Hitchens, “The Quotable Hitchens from Alcohol to Zionism: The Very Best of Christopher Hitchens”

“I have never advocated war

except as a means of peace.”

Ulysses S. Grant

“It is of the greatest important in this world that a man should know himself, and the measure of his own strength and means; and he who knows that he has not a genius for fighting must learn how to govern

by the arts of peace.”

Machiavelli, Niccolo

“War has no longer the justification that

it makes for the survival of the fittest;

it involves the survival of the less fit.

The idea that the struggle between nations is a part of the evolutionary law of man’s advance involves a profound misreading

of the biological analogy.


The warlike nations do not inherit the earth; they represent

the decaying human element.”

Norman Angell, “The Great Illusion”

“Homo sapiens!

The name itself was an irony.

They had not been wise at all,

but incredibly stupid.

Lords of the Earth with their great gray brains, their thinking minds had placed them above all other forms of life.

Yet it had not been thought that compelled them to act, but emotion.

From the dawn of their evolution they had killed, and conquered, and subdued.

They had committed atrocities on others

of their kind, ravaged the land, polluted

and destroyed, left millions to starve

in Third World countries, and finished

it all with a nuclear holocaust.

The mutants were right.

Intelligent creatures did not commit genocide, or murder the environment

on which they were dependent.”

Louise Lawrence, “Children of the Dust”

“War: first, one hopes to win;


then one expects the enemy to lose;

then, one is satisfied that he too is suffering;


in the end, one is surprised that

everyone has lost.”

Karl Kraus

“War is unlike life.

It’s a denial of everything you learn life is.

And that’s why when you get finished with it, you see that if offers no lessons that can’t be bettered learned in civilian life.

You are exposed to horrors you

would sooner forget.”

Robert Graff