Crypto Terminology

Crypto Terminology


Glossary of Terms


Bags

Cryptoassets being held, generally as longer-term plays; sometimes used self-deprecatingly for soft or losing positions one should close, but can’t for whatever reason. “Too bad none of my alt bags saw the moon that I did today. #cryptoeclipse”

Bitcoin Maximalists

The truest believers in bitcoin’s original mission and design, often paired with a disdain for altcoins.

Block

Blocks are found in the Bitcoin block chain. Blocks connect all transactions together.

Transactions are combined into single blocks and are verified every ten minutes through mining.

Each subsequent block strengthens the verification of the previous blocks, making it impossible to double spend bitcoin transactions (see double spend below).

BIP

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal or BIP, is a technical design document providing information to the bitcoin community, or describing a new feature for bitcoin or its processes or environment which affect the Bitcoin protocol.

New features, suggestions, and design changes to the protocol should be submitted as a BIP.

The BIP author is responsible for building consensus within the community and documenting dissenting opinions.

Black Swans

A black swan is an event or occurrence that deviates beyond what is normally expected of a situation and is extremely difficult to predict.

Black swan events are typically random and unexpected.

The term was popularized by Nassim Nicholas Taleb, a finance professor, writer, and former Wall Street trader.

Block Chain

The Bitcoin block chain is a public record of all Bitcoin transactions. You might also hear the term used as a “public ledger”.

The block chain shows every single record of bitcoin transactions in order, dating back to the very first one.

The entire block chain can be downloaded and openly reviewed by anyone, or you can use a block explorer to review the block chain online.

Block Height

The block height is just the number of blocks connected together in the block chain. Height 0 for example refers to the very first block, called the “genesis block”.

Block Reward

When a block is successfully mined on the bitcoin network, there is a block reward that helps incentivize miners to secure the network.

The block reward is part of a “coinbase” transaction which may also include transaction fees.

The block rewards halves roughly every four years; see also “halving”.

BTFD | #BTFD

“Buy the Fucking Dip” Advice to other traders to pick up a coin that’s presumably hit its bottom.

“$GNT Golem making moves. Underpriced @ 7.5K If U are buying GNT under 10K still a good price 3 X LETS GO $ETH #CRYPTO #trading #BTFD”

Change

Let’s say you are spending $9.90 in your local supermarket, and you give the cashier $10.00. You will get back .10 cents in change.

The same logic applies to bitcoin transactions.

Bitcoin transactions are made up of inputs and outputs.

When you send bitcoins, you can only send them in a whole “output”.

The change is then sent back to the sender.

Cold Storage

The term cold storage is a general term for different ways of securing cryptocurrency offline (disconnected from the internet).

This would be the opposite of a hot wallet or hosted wallet, which is connected to the web for day-to-day transactions.

The purpose of using cold storage is to minimize the chances of your bitcoins being stolen from a malicious hacker and is commonly used for larger sums of bitcoins.

Cold Wallet and Hot Wallet

Cold storage is an offline wallet provided for storing cryptocurrency.

With cold storage, the digital wallet is stored on a platform that is not connected to the internet, thereby, protecting the wallet from unauthorized access, cyber hacks, and other vulnerabilities that a system connected to the internet is susceptible to.

Confirmation

A confirmation means that the bitcoin transaction has been verified by the network, through the process known as mining.

Once a transaction is confirmed, it cannot be reversed or double spent.

Transactions are included in blocks.

Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency is the broad name for digital currencies that use blockchain technology to work on a peer-to-peer basis.

Cryptocurrencies don’t need a bank to carry out transactions between individuals.

The nature of the blockchain means that individuals can transact with each other, even if they don’t trust each other.

The cryptocurrency network keeps track of all the transactions and ensures that no one tries to renege on a transaction.

Cryptocurrency 2.0

Also known as a decentralized app,(Dapp) a cryptocurrency 2.0 project uses the blockchain for something other than simply creating and sending money.

They typically involve decentralized versions of online services that were previously operated by a trusted third party.

Cryptography

Cryptography is used in multiple places to provide security for the Bitcoin network.

Cryptography, which is essentially mathematical and computer science algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt information, is used in bitcoin addresses, hash functions, and the block chain.

Cypherpunk

1. A person with an interest in encryption and privacy, especially one who uses encrypted email.

2. Cypherpunk, a term that appeared in Eric Hughes’ “A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto” in 1993, combines the ideas of cyberpunk, the spirit of individualism in cyberspace, with the use of strong  encryption ( ciphertext is encrypted text) to preserve privacy.

Cypherpunk advocates believe that the use of strong encryption algorithms will enable individuals to have safely private transactions.

They oppose any kind of government regulation of cryptography.

They admit the likelihood that criminals and terrorists will exploit the use of strong encryption systems, but accept the risk as the price to be paid for the individual’s right to privacy.

Dark Web

The part of the World Wide Web that is only accessible by means of special software, allowing users and website operators to remain anonymous or untraceable.

The Dark Web poses new and formidable challenges for law enforcement agencies around the world.

Decentralized

Having a decentralized bitcoin network is a critical aspect.

The network is “decentralized”, meaning that it’s void of a centralized company or entity that governs the network.

Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer protocol, where all users within the network work and communicate directly with each other, instead of having their funds handled by a middleman, such as a bank or credit card company.

Difficulty

Difficulty is directly related to Bitcoin mining (see mining below), and how hard it is to verify blocks in the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoin adjusts the mining difficulty of verifying blocks every 2016 blocks.

Difficulty is automatically adjusted to keep block verification times at ten minutes.

Dogecoin

Dogecoin is an altcoin that first started as a joke in late 2013. Dogecoin, which features a Japanese fighting dog as its mascot, gained a broad international following and quickly grew to have a multi-million dollar market capitalization.

Double Spend

If someone tries to send a bitcoin transaction to two different recipients at the same time, this is double spending. Once a bitcoin transaction is confirmed, it makes it nearly impossible to double spend it. The more confirmations that a transaction has, the harder it is to double spend the bitcoins.

DYOR | #DYOR

“Do Your Own Research.” The trader’s caveat that advice shouldn’t be taken at face value.

“$BCY has an appealing risk/reward here. Could take a few months to play out, however, and will require patience. #DYOR”

Exit Scam

Traditionally a term for darknet markets and vendors that, after building up a good reputation, accumulate bitcoins and disappear; exit scams are also feared by ICO participants who worry that, once they’ve raised hundreds of millions in hard-to-trace money, the developers will take the money and run.

Fiat

Government-issued money.

Full Node

A full node is when you download the entire block chain using a bitcoin client, and you relay, validate, and secure the data within the block chain.

The data is bitcoin transactions and blocks, which is validated across the entire network of users.

FOMO | #FOMO

“Fear of Missing Out.” When a coin starts to moon, dumb money rushes in. “$LGD on a TEAR right now!!! It has major highs right now! Some major #FOMO going on!!! Sell while it’s high. It WILL drop before fight!!!”

FUD

“Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt.”

Another non-crypto term that describes attempts to scare weak-handed coin-holders into selling their positions, often with rumors of exit scams or hacks; the cheap, dumped coins are then picked up by the FUD-ers.

Fungibility

Fungibility is a good or asset’s interchangeability with other individual goods or assets of the same type.

Assets possessing this fungibility property simplify the exchange and trade processes, as interchangeability assumes everyone values all goods of that class the same.

HODL

HOLD ON FOR DEAR LIFE!

The intentionally misspelled word hodl has its roots in a December 2013 post on the Bitcoin Talk forum, “I AM HODLING”; when the author, GameKyuubi, couldn’t be bothered to fix his typo, the community instantly turned it into a verb: to hodl.


Along with other terms, hodl is an effective litmus test for sussing out newcomers, carpetbaggers, and tourists.

Halving

Bitcoins have a finite supply, which makes them scarce.

The total amount that will ever be issued is 21 million.

The number of bitcoins generated per block is decreased 50% every 210,000 blocks,roughtly four years.

This is called “halving.”

The final halving will take place in the year 2140.

Hash

A cryptographic hash is a mathematical function that takes a file and produces a relative shortcode that can be used to identify that file.

A hash has a couple of key properties:

• It is unique. 

Only a particular file can produce a particular hash, and two different files will never produce the same hash.

It cannot be reversed.

You can’t work out what a file was by looking at its hash.

Hashing is used to prove that a set of data has not been tampered with.

It is what makes bitcoin mining possible.

Hash Rate

The hash rate is how the Bitcoin mining network processing power is measured.

In order for miners to confirm transactions and secure the block chain, the hardware they use must perform intensive computational operations which is output in hashes per second.

Hash Converter

Use an online hash converter, such as https://hash.online-convert.com and enter the text you want to convert.

Then, try changing just a letter in the input text to see how the resulting hash varies significantly

Hard Fork

A hard fork is when a single cryptocurrency splits in two.

It occurs when a cryptocurrency’s existing code is changed, resulting in both an old and new version.

Meanwhile a soft fork is essentially the same thing, but the idea is that only one blockchain (and thus one coin) will remain valid as users adopt the update.

So both fork types create a split, but a hard fork is meant to create two blockchain/coins and a soft fork is meant to result in one.

Segwit was a soft fork, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Gold, and Segwit2x are all hard forks.

Immutability

In object-oriented and functional programming, an immutable object (unchangeable object) is an object whose state cannot be modified after it is created.

This is in contrast to a mutable object (changeable object), which can be modified after it is created.

Lambo | #Lambo

A running joke among traders, you’re cryptorich when you can buy a Lamborghini; though absurd, it’s not unheard of — when Alexandre Cazes, the suspected founder of a major darknet marketplace, was found hanged in his Bangkok jail cell, Thai media reported that he owned four Lamborghinis.

Mining

Bitcoin mining is the process of using computer hardware to do mathematical calculations for the Bitcoin network in order to confirm transactions.

Miners collect transaction fees for the transactions they confirm and are awarded bitcoins for each block they verify.

Moon | #Moon

A rapid price increase.

Peer-to-Peer

Typically, online applications are provided by a central party that organizes all the transactions.

Your bank runs its own computers, and all the customers log into the bank’s computer to handle their transactions.

If Bob wants to send money to Alice, he asks the bank to do it, and the bank controls everything.

In a peer-to-peer arrangement, technology cuts out the middleman, meaning that people deal directly with each other.

Bob would send the money directly to Alice, and there wouldn’t be any bank involved at all.

Pool

As part of bitcoin mining, mining “pools” are a network of miners that work together to mine a block, then split the block reward among the pool miners.

Mining pools are a good way for miners to combine their resources to increase the probability of mining a block, and also contribute to the overall health and decentralization of the bitcoin network.

Private Key

A private key is a string of data that shows you have access to bitcoins in a specific wallet.

Think of a private key like a password; private keys must never be revealed to anyone but you, as they allow you to spend the bitcoins from your bitcoin wallet through a cryptographic signature.

Proof of Work

Proof of work refers to the hash of a block header (blocks of bitcoin transactions).

A block is considered valid only if its hash is lower than the current target.

Each block refers to a previous block adding to previous proofs of work, which forms a chain of blocks, known as a block chain.

Once a chain is formed, it confirms all previous Bitcoin transactions and secures the network.

Pump

A rapid price increase believed to be the result of market manipulation, a.k.a. pump and dump.

Public Address

A public bitcoin address is cryptographic hash of a public key.

A public address typically starts with the number “1.”

Think of a public address like an email address.

It can be published anywhere and bitcoins can be sent to it, just like an email can be sent to an email address.

Private Key

A private key is a string of data that shows you have access to bitcoins in a specific wallet.

Think of a private key like a password; private keys must never be revealed to anyone but you, as they allow you to spend the bitcoins from your bitcoin wallet through a cryptographic signature.

Rekt | #Rekt

Meaning “wrecked”.

“I never sell because of #FUD, and I never buy because of #FOMO.

That’s the easiest way to get #Rekt

Sats

Satoshis, currently the smallest unit of a single bitcoin, useful for tracking coin prices. “At the rate $XRP’s moving, I wouldn’t be surprised if it hits 10K sats by the end of the day.”

Security Tokens

A security token (sometimes called an authentication token) is a small hardware device that the owner carries to authorize access to a network service.

The device may be in the form of a smart card or may be embedded in a commonly used object such as a key fob.

Shitcoins

Pejorative term for altcoins, especially low-cap coins, often affectionately used by shitcoin hodlers.

SEGWIT

SegWit is the process by which the block size limit on a blockchain is increased by removing signature data from Bitcoin transactions.

When certain parts of a transaction are removed, this frees up space or capacity to add more transactions to the chain.

Transaction

A transaction is when data is sent to and from one bitcoin address to another.

Just like financial transactions where you send money from one person to another, in bitcoin you do the same thing by sending data (bitcoins) to each other.

Bitcoins have value because it’s based on the properties of mathematics, rather than relying on physical properties (like gold and silver) or trust in central authorities, like fiat currencies.

Wallet

Just like with paper dollars you hold in your physical wallet, a bitcoin wallet is a digital wallet where you can store, send, and receive bitcoins securely.

There are many varieties of wallets available, whether you’re looking for a web or mobile solution.

Ideally, a bitcoin wallet will give you access to your public and private keys.

This means that only you have rightful access to spend these bitcoins, whenever you choose to.

Whale

Anyone who owns 5 percent of any given coin, often used as a boogeyman to explain unwanted price movements.

“Nice support $NEO. Clear whale manipulation.”


Blue Pill vs. Red Pill
Choose wisely

When You’re ready …

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Mining Pool Payouts

Mining Pool Payouts explained: PPS vs. FPPS vs. PPLNS vs. PPS+

What is a Mining Pool?

Mining Pools

A Mining pools is a hub where a group of Crypto currency miners share their processing power to the network in order to solve the blocks quicker.

The rewards will be split equally based on the amount of shares that they contributed in finding a block.

Pool mining was introduced during early Bitcoin mining days when solo mining became non-viable.

The more powerful your hardware is, the more shares you’ll submit, the more shares you submit, the more you’ll earn.

In order for the pool to pay its miners each pool uses its own payment scheme. Two of the most popular option is PPS and PPLNS.


Mining Pool payouts explained PPS vs. FPPS vs. PPLNS vs. PPS+
Mining pool payouts explained: Pay-per-share (PPS)
Pay-Per-Share (PPS)
Pay-per-last-n-shares (PPLNS) MineBest
Pay-Per-Last-N-Shares (PPLNS)
Different mining pool payouts explained: PPS vs. FPPS vs. PPLNS vs. PPS+

The first thing a miner has to decide is which pool mining payout is best for their requirements.

PROP (proportional), FPPS (Full Pay Per Share), SMPPS (Shared Maximum Pay Per Share), ESMPPS (Equalized Shared Maximum Pay Per Share), CPPSRB (Capped Pay Per Share with Recent Backpay), PPS (Pay Per Share), PPLNS (Pay Per Last N Share) and lastly PPS+ (Pay Per Share Plus).

Among them PPS and PPLNS are the two types of payment models that are mostly used by mining pools currently. Before we explain both PPS and PPLNS we’ll make a short note on mining pool.

There are numerous payment systems (over 15), but the vast majority of the pools operate on a PPS, FPPS, PPS+ and PPLNS basis.

However, before trying to understand the different settlement models, it is important to come to a consensus on some terms used in crypto mining.

Block Reward: Block reward refers to the new coins issued by the network to miners for each successfully solved block.

Hashing PowerHash rate is the speed at which a computer completes an operation in the cryptocurrency’s code. A higher hashrate increases a miner’s opportunity of finding the next block.

Luck: Luck, in mining, is the probability of success. Imagine that each miner is given a lottery ticket for a certain amount of hashing power they provide. If they are to provide 1 TH/s hashing power when the overall hashing power in the network is 10 TH/s, then they would receive 1 of 10 total lottery tickets. The probability of winning the lottery (in this case finding the block reward) would be 10%.

Transaction Fees: Some networks (like Bitcoin) also have substantial amounts of transaction fees rewarded to miners. These fees are the total fees paid by users of the network to execute transactions.

Pay-Per-Share (PPS)

PPS offers an instant flat payout for each share that is solved. With this payment method, a miner gets a standard payout rate for each share completed. Each share is worth a certain amount of mineable cryptocurrency.

After deducting the mining pool fees, the miners are given a fixed income every day. Therefore, under the PPS mode, the returns are relatively stable. Miners are exposed to risk here. They may not get the transaction fees.

It is ideal for low priced orders for an extended period. This model becomes lucrative during a bearish run of a particular coin.

Pay-Per-Last-N-Shares (PPLNS)

With this payout, profits will be allocated based on the number of shares miners contribute. This kind of allocation method is closely related to the block mined out. If the mining pool excavates multiple blocks in a day, the miners will have a high profit; if the mining pool is not able to mine a block during the whole day, the miner’s profit during the whole day is zero.

Notably, in the short term, the PPLNS model is highly correlated with a pool’s luck. If the luck factor of a particular mining pool decreases in the short term, the miner’s income will also decrease accordingly (the opposite case of the mining pool being lucky in the short term is possible too). However, in the long term, the luck factor tends to average out to the mean.

Hence, this model is ideal for fixing orders on a big pool that has a high chance of finding a block within the order time limit. Or a standard order which will have miners connected for a longer time.

Pay Per Share + (PPS+)

PPS+ is a blend of two modes mentioned above, PPS and PPLNS. The block reward is settled according to the PPS model. And the mining service charge /transaction fee is settled according to the PPLNS mode.

That is to say, in this mode, the miner can additionally obtain the income of part of the transaction fee based on the PPLNS payment method. This was a major drawback in the PPS model.

Full Pay Per Share (FPPS)

With this pool payout, both the block reward and the mining service charge are settled according to the theoretical profit. Calculate a standard transaction fee within a certain period and distribute it to miners according to their hash power contributions in the pool. It increases the miners’ earnings by sharing some of the transaction fees.

With the PPS and FPPS payment methods, you will get paid no matter if the pool finds a block or not. This is the most significant advantage over PPLNS. The risks and rewards are higher with the PPLNS plan.

The decision on which mining plan to choose from needs to be preceded by the decision of choosing the right mining infrastructure.


Difference between PPS vs PPLNS payment models?

PPLNS

PPLNS stands for Pay Per Last (luck) N Shares. This method calculates your payments based on the number of shares you submitted during a shift.

It includes shift system which is time based or by number of shares submitted by the miners on the pool.

Your pool may find blocks consistently or in overtime it may have huge variations in winning a block and that ultimately affects your payments. PPLNS greatly involves luck factor and you’ll notice huge fluctuations in your 24 hour payout.

If you maintain your mining on a single pool then your payouts will remain consistent and it only differs when new miners join or leave the pool.

PPS

Pay Per Share pays you an average of the number of shares that you contributed to the pool in finding blocks.

PPS pays you on solid rate and is more of a direct method which completely eliminates luck factor.

In PPS method regardless of the pools lucky at winning blocks you’re going to get 100% payout at the end of the day. This is because there is a standard payout set for each miners based on their hash power.

It won’t be more than 100% or less than that and with this PPS method you can easily calculate your potential earnings.

On the other hand with PPLNS payment system on average you can either get more than 100% or less than that. It is based on how lucky the pool is at finding blocks.

Should I choose PPS or PPLNS?

This is one of the common questions most miners have initially.

Should I choose Pay Per Share or Pay Per Last N Share pools?

If you are the person who don’t switch pools often then PPLNS is definitely for you as such pools are good at rewarding its loyal miners.

Pay Per Share: No matter what, if you need a fixed payouts at the end of the day to liquidate or for whatsoever reason then your choice would be PPS.

Pay Per Share works well for large mining farms who can calculate and have statistics based on their mining power.

PPS is good for large miners but really bad for pool owners as there is a guaranteed payout for work no matter if the pool hits the block or not.

For this reason and because of pool hoppers (not loyal miners of the pool) most of the mining pools have switched to PPLNS payment model.

Pay Per Last N Shares: If you are the one that is looking to accumulate and hold more coins then PPLNS is recommended.

For each block that your pool finds you’ll get a share based on your hashrate.

Unlike PPS, in PPLNS you’ll get payouts more often and in the long run you’ll be rewarded more with PPLNS than PPS.

However due to huge variance it’s really hard to calculate your mining income.

PPLNS is good for both mid-range miners and pool owners as the payouts is only based on the blocks found.

If your pool is more lucky  then you’ll see payments more often. This is the reason why miners stick to a pool where there is more hash power assuming the pool finds block very often.

You can find more comparison of mining pools payment system here.

How to find out if a pool is PPS or PPLNS?

Cryptocurrency mining can be a lucrative process. However it’s very important that you find out what payment scheme your pool is using before committing your hashing power.

Most of the mining pools has this information listed on FAQ page or at payouts page. If you’re unable to find this information then the only option is to contact the pool support.

Hope the information on this page is helpful for you to decide the right mining pool.


Happy Hashing


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#1 Book of the Year I recomend reading…

“Ego is the Enemy”


“Re-read it each year. It’s that important.”

Derek Sivers, author of “Anything you want”

“This is a book I want every athlete, aspiring leader, entrepreneur, thinker and doer to read. Ryan Holiday is one of the most promising young writers of his generation.”

George Raveling, Hall of Fame Basketball Coach

“Ryan Holiday is one of his generation’s finest thinkers, and this book is his best yet.”

Steven Pressfield, author of “The War of Art” and “Gates of Fire

“Ryan Holiday has written a brilliant and engaging book, well beyond his years… It is invaluable.”

Brian Koppelman, screenwriter and director, “Rounders”, “Ocean’s Thirteen” and “Billions”

Ego Is the Enemy

“While the history books are filled with tales of obsessive, visionary geniuses who remade the world in their image with sheer, almost irrational force, I’ve found that history is also made by individuals who fought their egos at every turn, who eschewed the spotlight, and who put their higher goals above their desire for recognition.” – from the Prologue

Many of us insist the main impediment to a full, successful life is the outside world. In fact, the most common enemy lies within: our ego. Early in our careers, it impedes learning and the cultivation of talent. With success, it can blind us to our faults and sow future problems. In failure, it magnifies each blow and makes recovery more difficult. At every stage, ego holds us back.

The Ego is the Enemy draws on a vast array of stories and examples, from literature to philosophy to history. We meet fascinating figures like Howard Hughes, Katharine Graham, Bill Belichick, and Eleanor Roosevelt, all of whom reached the highest levels of power and success by conquering their own egos. Their strategies and tactics can be ours as well.

But why should we bother fighting ego in an era that glorifies social media, reality TV, and other forms of shameless self-promotion?  Armed with the lessons in this book, as Holiday writes, “you will be less invested in the story you tell about your own specialness, and as a result, you will be liberated to accomplish the world-changing work you’ve set out to achieve.


RYAN HOLIDAY


Ryan Holiday is a strategist and writer. He dropped out of college at nineteen to appren­tice under Robert Greene, author of “The 48 Laws of Power”, and later served as the director of mar­keting for American Apparel.

His company, Brass Check, has advised clients like Google, TASER, and Complex, as well as many prominent bestselling authors.

Holiday has written four previous books, most recently The Obstacle Is the Way, which has been translated into seventeen languages and has a cult following among NFL coaches, world-class athletes, TV personalities, political leaders, and others around the world.

He lives on a small ranch outside Austin, Texas. 


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Stellar(XLM) :

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B-Money

Web Dai – B-Money

I am fascinated by Tim May's crypto-anarchy. 

Unlike the communities
traditionally associated with the word "anarchy", in a crypto-anarchy the
government is not temporarily destroyed but permanently forbidden and
permanently unnecessary.

It's a community where the threat of violence is
impotent because violence is impossible, and violence is impossible because its participants cannot be linked to their true names or physical locations.
 
Until now it's not clear, even theoretically, how such a community could operate.

A community is defined by the cooperation of its participants, and efficient cooperation requires a medium of exchange (money) and a way to enforce contracts.

Traditionally these services have been provided by the government or government sponsored institutions and only to legal entities.

In this article I describe a protocol by which these services can be provided to and by untraceable entities.
 
I will actually describe two protocols. The first one is impractical,because it makes heavy use of a synchronous and unjammable anonymous
broadcast channel. However it will motivate the second, more practical protocol.

In both cases I will assume the existence of an untraceable network, where senders and receivers are identified only by digital
pseudonyms (i.e. public keys) and every messages is signed by its sender
and encrypted to its receiver.
 
In the first protocol, every participant maintains a (seperate) database of how much money belongs to each pseudonym. These accounts collectively define the ownership of money, and how these accounts are updated is the subject of this protocol.
 
1. The creation of money. Anyone can create money by broadcasting the
solution to a previously unsolved computational problem. The only
conditions are that it must be easy to determine how much computing effort
it took to solve the problem and the solution must otherwise have no
value, either practical or intellectual. The number of monetary units
created is equal to the cost of the computing effort in terms of a
standard basket of commodities. For example if a problem takes 100 hours
to solve on the computer that solves it most economically, and it takes 3
standard baskets to purchase 100 hours of computing time on that computer
on the open market, then upon the broadcast of the solution to that
problem everyone credits the broadcaster's account by 3 units.
 
2. The transfer of money. If Alice (owner of pseudonym K_A) wishes to
transfer X units of money to Bob (owner of pseudonym K_B), she broadcasts
the message "I give X units of money to K_B" signed by K_A.
 
Upon the broadcast of this message, everyone debits K_A's account by X units and
credits K_B's account by X units, unless this would create a negative
balance in K_A's account in which case the message is ignored.
 
3. The effecting of contracts. A valid contract must include a maximum
reparation in case of default for each participant party to it. It should
also include a party who will perform arbitration should there be a
dispute. All parties to a contract including the arbitrator must broadcast
their signatures of it before it becomes effective. Upon the broadcast of
the contract and all signatures, every participant debits the account of
each party by the amount of his maximum reparation and credits a special
account identified by a secure hash of the contract by the sum the maximum
reparations. The contract becomes effective if the debits succeed for
every party without producing a negative balance, otherwise the contract
is ignored and the accounts are rolled back. A sample contract might look
like this:
 
K_A agrees to send K_B the solution to problem P before 0:0:0 1/1/2000.
K_B agrees to pay K_A 100 MU (monetary units) before 0:0:0 1/1/2000. K_C
agrees to perform arbitration in case of dispute. K_A agrees to pay a
maximum of 1000 MU in case of default. K_B agrees to pay a maximum of 200
MU in case of default. K_C agrees to pay a maximum of 500 MU in case of
default.
 
4. The conclusion of contracts. If a contract concludes without dispute,
each party broadcasts a signed message "The contract with SHA-1 hash H
concludes without reparations." or possibly "The contract with SHA-1 hash
H concludes with the following reparations: ..." Upon the broadcast of all
signatures, every participant credits the account of each party by the
amount of his maximum reparation, removes the contract account, then
credits or debits the account of each party according to the reparation
schedule if there is one.
 
5. The enforcement of contracts. If the parties to a contract cannot agree
on an appropriate conclusion even with the help of the arbitrator, each
party broadcasts a suggested reparation/fine schedule and any arguments or
evidence in his favor. Each participant makes a determination as to the
actual reparations and/or fines, and modifies his accounts accordingly.
 
In the second protocol, the accounts of who has how much money are kept by
a subset of the participants (called servers from now on) instead of
everyone. These servers are linked by a Usenet-style broadcast channel.

The format of transaction messages broadcasted on this channel remain the
same as in the first protocol, but the affected participants of each
transaction should verify that the message has been received and
successfully processed by a randomly selected subset of the servers.
 
Since the servers must be trusted to a degree, some mechanism is needed to
keep them honest. Each server is required to deposit a certain amount of
money in a special account to be used as potential fines or rewards for
proof of misconduct. Also, each server must periodically publish and
commit to its current money creation and money ownership databases. Each
participant should verify that his own account balances are correct and
that the sum of the account balances is not greater than the total amount
of money created. This prevents the servers, even in total collusion, from
permanently and costlessly expanding the money supply. New servers can
also use the published databases to synchronize with existing servers.
 
The protocol proposed in this article allows untraceable pseudonymous
entities to cooperate with each other more efficiently, by providing them
with a medium of exchange and a method of enforcing contracts. The
protocol can probably be made more efficient and secure, but I hope this
is a step toward making crypto-anarchy a practical as well as theoretical
possibility.
 
-------
 
Appendix A: alternative b-money creation
 
One of the more problematic parts in the b-money protocol is money
creation. This part of the protocol requires that all of the account
keepers decide and agree on the cost of particular computations.
Unfortunately because computing technology tends to advance rapidly and
not always publicly, this information may be unavailable, inaccurate, or
outdated, all of which would cause serious problems for the protocol.
 
So I propose an alternative money creation subprotocol, in which account
keepers (everyone in the first protocol, or the servers in the second
protocol) instead decide and agree on the amount of b-money to be created
each period, with the cost of creating that money determined by an
auction. Each money creation period is divided up into four phases, as
follows:
 
1. Planning. The account keepers compute and negotiate with each other to
determine an optimal increase in the money supply for the next period.

Whether or not the account keepers can reach a consensus, they each
broadcast their money creation quota and any macroeconomic calculations
done to support the figures.
 
2. Bidding. Anyone who wants to create b-money broadcasts a bid in the
form of <x, y> where x is the amount of b-money he wants to create, and y
is an unsolved problem from a predetermined problem class. Each problem in
this class should have a nominal cost (in MIPS-years say) which is
publicly agreed on.
 
3. Computation. After seeing the bids, the ones who placed bids in the
bidding phase may now solve the problems in their bids and broadcast the
solutions.
 
4. Money creation. Each account keeper accepts the highest bids (among
those who actually broadcasted solutions) in terms of nominal cost per
unit of b-money created and credits the bidders' accounts accordingly

http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt

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BitAddress

Open Source JavaScript Client-Side Bitcoin Wallet Generator

A Bitcoin wallet is as simple as a single pairing of a Bitcoin address with its corresponding Bitcoin private key. Such a wallet has been generated for you in your web browser and is displayed above.

To safeguard this wallet you must print or otherwise record the Bitcoin address and private key. It is important to make a backup copy of the private key and store it in a safe location. This site does not have knowledge of your private key. If you are familiar with PGP you can download this all-in-one HTML page and check that you have an authentic version from the author of this site by matching the SHA256 hash of this HTML with the SHA256 hash available in the signed version history document linked on the footer of this site. If you leave/refresh the site or press the “Generate New Address” button then a new private key will be generated and the previously displayed private key will not be retrievable. Your Bitcoin private key should be kept a secret. Whomever you share the private key with has access to spend all the bitcoins associated with that address. If you print your wallet then store it in a zip lock bag to keep it safe from water. Treat a paper wallet like cash.

Add funds to this wallet by instructing others to send bitcoins to your Bitcoin address.

Check your balance by going to blockchain.info or blockexplorer.com and entering your Bitcoin address.

Spend your bitcoins by going to blockchain.info and sweep the full balance of your private key into your account at their website. You can also spend your funds by downloading one of the popular bitcoin p2p clients and importing your private key to the p2p client wallet. Keep in mind when you import your single key to a bitcoin p2p client and spend funds your key will be bundled with other private keys in the p2p client wallet. When you perform a transaction your change will be sent to another bitcoin address within the p2p client wallet. You must then backup the p2p client wallet and keep it safe as your remaining bitcoins will be stored there. Satoshi advised that one should never delete a wallet.

Source:

https://www.bitaddress.org/

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Profitability Guide

Mining Profitability Guide

To calculate mining profitability, you should follow these steps, no matter which calculator you are using:

🔸️Be sure you know your GPU models and the Hash rates.

🔸️Be sure you know the algorithm of the coin.

🔸️Choose the exchange you plan to use for selling coins. This is necessary if you want more precise results.

🔸️Be sure you know your electricity cost.


You can find a list of calculators online that are used by miners, here:

http://bithouseco.home.blog/2021/09/12/mining-calculators/


🔹️ Be sure to keep track of what’s happening in the cryptocurrency world, if you aren’t doing so already. If a coin has problems, it will definitely affect the price and mining profitability, and may even prevent you from selling mined coins.

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Bitcoin is independent from “crypto”

Bitcoin vs “Crypto

@bithouseco

   The quality of Bitcoin’s monetary policy and the public’s confidence that the policy will be respected in the long-run is all what really matters.

For all of you out there, who believe that Bitcoin falls under the “crypto” umbrella, you could not be further from the truth.

“Crypto” is designated for the affinity scams that launched in Bitcoin’s shadow and attempted to leverage its pedigree and latch on to its narrative to sell useless tokens to unwitting noobs.

The scammers believe they can “beat” Bitcoin by providing a feature set and a “culture” more appealing to the masses and make individuals more likely to pick their favorite “crypto” over the best money humans have ever come in contact with.

As most people, these people couldn’t be more delusional.

The success of Bitcoin doesn’t depend on the “culture” of bitcoiners.

Bitcoin is a protocol that has no way of knowing the “culture” of its users.

If it is successful it will be used by many different people from many worldwide  lands with very different cultures.

A cultural hold on a particular competitive landscape of social media doesn’t really impress no one at the end of the day.

What really matters is the quality of Bitcoin’s monetary policy and the public’s confidence that the policy will be respected in the long-run.

The best way to build confidence in that policy is to make the cost of attempting to change that policy, or falling out of line with the consensus rules of the network as high as possible.

Nothing in “crypto” comes close to Bitcoin in these regards, and that is because the Bitcoin network is slowly but surely integrating itself into the energy sector of the globe.

The execution risks associated with mining Bitcoin have become very high.

If a miner fucks up and falls out of consensus, they are punished materially by missing out on precious block reward payouts.

As the network becomes more integrated with the energy sector, these costs will rise and abiding by the monetary policy put forth by the network of full nodes will be paramount.

It happend in 2017 when the biggest corporate players and miners attempted to hard fork a block space increase that fell out of consensus with the full nodes on the network.

The unwillingness to follow consensus ruined reputations and lost a lot of miners a lot of money over the four years that have followed the hard fork.

This is the certainty for the people, that bitcoin is a suitable monetary good in the digital age.

All of “crypto” pretenters focused on speed, app building, and being less “energy intensive” have completely missed the plot and have relegated themselves to a hedonistic odd sand box filled with degenerate gamblers and low energy thinkers.

Bitcoin has already won because it has won the energy game.

This energy game is what will protect Bitcoin’s monetary policy in the long-run, being strongly incentivized by full nodes to do so.

Very few understand this and very few will ever understand that !!!

Napoleon Hill Quotes

Napoleon Hill

Napoleon Hill was an American author in the area of the new thought movement who was one of the earliest producers of the modern genre of personal-success literature.

He is widely considered to be one of the great writers on success.

His most famous work, Think and Grow Rich (1937), is one of the best-selling books of all time (at the time of Hill’s death in 1970, Think and Grow Rich had sold 20 million copies).

Hill’s works examined the power of personal beliefs, and the role they play in personal success.

He became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 to 1936. “What the mind of man can conceive and believe, it can achieve” is one of Hill’s hallmark expressions.

How achievement actually occurs, and a formula for it that puts success in reach of the average person, were the focal points of Hill’s books.

” The starting point of all achievement is DESIRE.

Keep this constantly in mind.

Weak desire brings weak results, just as a small fire makes a small amount of heat. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Desire

Whatever the mind can conceive and believe, it can achieve. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

The Mind

” You are the master of your destiny.

You can influence, direct and control your own environment.

You can make your life what you want it to be. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

The Master of your destiny

” When defeat comes, accept it as a signal that your plans are not sound, rebuild those plans, and set sail once more toward your coveted goal. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Defeat

” Do not wait: the time will never be ‘just right’.

Start where you stand, and work whatever tools you may have at your command and better tools will be found as you go along. “

Napoleon Hill

Time will never be just right’

” When your desires are strong enough, you will appear to possess superhuman powers to achieve. “

Napoleon Hill

Desires and superhuman powers

” A quitter never wins and a winner never quits. “

Napoleon Hill

Quitter vs. Winner

” The man who does more than he is paid for will soon be paid for more than he does. “

Napoleon Hill

More than you’re paid

” Our only limitations are those we set up in our own minds. “

Napoleon Hill

Limitations

” Happiness is found in doing, not merely possessing. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Happiness

” An educated man is not, necessarily, one who has an abundance of general or specialized knowledge.

An educated man is one who has so developed the faculties of his mind that he may acquire anything he wants, or its equivalent, without violating the rights of others. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

An educated man

” Every adversity, every failure, every heartbreak, carries with it the seed of an equal or greater benefit. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

The Seed

” More gold had been mined from the mind of men than the earth it self. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Mind gold

” A goal is a dream with a deadline. “

Napoleon Hill

Goal

” Opinions are the cheapest commodities on earth.

Everyone has a flock of opinions ready to be wished upon anyone who will accept them.

If you are influenced by “opinions” when you reach DECISIONS, you will not succeed in any undertaking. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Opinions…cheapest commodities on earth !

” We refuse to believe that which we don’t understand. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Refuse to believe…

” You are entitled to know that two entities occupy your body.

One of these entities is motivated by and responds to the impulse of fear.

The other is motivated by and responds to the impulse of faith.

Will you be guided by faith or will you allow fear to overtake you? “

Napoleon Hill – “Outwitting the Devil: The Secret to Freedom and Success”

Fear

” Remember that your dominating thoughts attract, through a definite law of nature, by the shortest and most convenient route, their physical counterpart.

Be careful what
your thoughts dwell upon. “

Napoleon Hill – “Outwitting the Devil: The Secret to Freedom and Success”

Law of Nature

” IF – and this is the greatest of them all – I had the courage to see myself as I really am, I would find out what is wrong with me, and correct it, then I might have a chance to profit by my mistakes and learn something from the experience of others,for I know that there is something WRONG with me, or I would now be where I WOULD HAVE BEEN IF I had spent more time analyzing my weaknesses, and less time building alibis to cover them. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Courage to see thyself

” First comes thought; then organization of that thought, into ideas and plans; then transformation of those plans into reality.

The beginning, as you will observe, is in your imagination. “

Napoleon Hill

Imagination

” The strongest oak of the forest is not the one that is protected from the storm and hidden from the sun.

It’s the one that stands in the open where it is compelled to struggle for its existence against the winds and rains and the scorching sun. “

Napoleon Hill

Strongest oak

” Weak desires bring weak results, just as a small amount of fire brings a small amount of heat. “

Napoleon Hill

Weak desires

” Persistence is to the character of man as carbon is to steel. “

Napoleon Hill

Persistance

” A genius is simply one who has taken full possession of his own mind and directed it toward objectives of his own choosing, without permitting outside influences to discourage or mislead him. “

Napoleon Hill

Genius

” Neglecting to broaden their view has kept some people doing one thing all their lives. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Broaden your view

” If you are not learning while you’re earning, you are cheating yourself out of the better portion of your compensation. “

Napoleon Hill

Learning while you’re earning

” Wise men, when in doubt whether to speak or to keep quiet, give themselves the benefit of the doubt, and remain silent. “

Napoleon Hill

Silence

” One who has loved truly, can never lose entirely.

Love is whimsical and temperamental. Its nature is ephemeral, and transitory.

It comes when it pleases,and goes away without warning.

Accept and enjoy it while it remains, but spend no time worrying about its departure.

Worry will never bring it back. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Love

” TELL THE WORLD WHAT YOU INTEND TO DO, BUT FIRST SHOW IT.

This is the equivalent of saying “deeds, and not words, are what count most. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

” Remember,too,that all who succeed in life get off to a bad start,and pass through many heartbreaking struggles before they “arrive”.

The turning point in the lives of those who succeed usually comes at some moment of crisis,through which they are introduced to their “other selves”. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

The turning point

“Most great people have attained their greatest success just one step beyond their greatest failure.”

Napoleon Hill

One step beyond your greatest failure

” Awake,arise,and assert yourself,you dreamers of the world.

Your star is now in ascendancy. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Dreamers of the world

” Most so called FAILURES are only temporary defeats. “

Napoleon Hill – “Law of Success”

Temporary defeats

” Effort only fully releases its reward after a person refuses to quit. “

Napoleon Hill

Effort and reward

” Fears are nothing more than a state of mind. “

Napoleon Hill – “Law of Success”

Fears

” Whatever the mind can conceive and believe, the mind can achieve regardless of how many times you may have failed in the past or how lofty your aims and hopes may be. “

Napoleon Hill

The mind

” You are entitled to know that two entities occupy your body.

One of these entities is motivated by and responds to the impulse of fear.

The other is motivated by and responds to the impulse of faith.

Will you be guided by faith or will you allow fear to overtake you? “

Napoleon Hill – “Outwitting the Devil: The Secret to Freedom and Success”

Faith vs Fear

” The only limitation is that which one sets up in one’s own mind. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Limitation

” Every man is what he is, because of the dominating thoughts which he permits to occupy his mind. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Dominating thoughts

” There is no substitute for persistence.

The person who makes persistence his watch-word, discovers that “Old Man Failure” finally becomes tired, and makes his departure.

Failure cannot cope with persistence. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Persistance

” The most practical of all methods for controlling the mind is the habit of keeping it busy with a definite purpose, backed by a definite plan.”

And


“A man whose mind is filled with fear not only destroys his own chances of intelligent action, but he transmits these destructive vibrations to the minds of all who come in contact with him, and destroys, also, their chances.”

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Mind buay with definite purpose

” Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success. “

Napoleon Hill

3 P’s

” Success requires no explanations. Failure permits no alibis. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Success

” He had nothing to start with, except the capacity to know what he wanted, and the determination to stand by that desire until he realized it. “

Napoleon Hill, Think and Grow Rich

Determination and Desire

” He had nothing to start with, except the capacity to know what he wanted, and the determination to stand by that desire until he realized it. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Capacity to know what you want

” Nature will not tolerate idleness or vacuums of any sort.

All space must be and is filled with something . . .

When the individual does not use the brain for the expression of positive, creative thoughts, nature fills the vacuum by forcing the brain to act upon negative thoughts.

Napoleon Hill – “Outwitting the Devil: The Secret to Freedom and Success”

Nature

” In parting, I would remind you that “Life is a checkerboard, and the player opposite you is time.

If you hesitate before moving, or neglect to move promptly, your men will be wiped off the board by time.

You are playing against a partner who will not tolerate decisions! “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Life is a checkboard

” Close friends and relatives, while not meaning to do so, often handicap one through “opinions” and sometimes through ridicule, which is meant to be humorous.

Thousands of men and women carry inferiority complexes with them all through life, because some well-meaning, but ignorant person destroyed their confidence through “opinions” or ridicule. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Opinions

” If you must be careless with your possessions, let it be in connection with material things.

Your mind is your spiritual estate!

Protect and use it with the care to which Divine Royalty is entitled.

You were given a WILL-POWER for this purpose. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Your mind is your spiritual estate

” Deliberately seek the company of people who influence you to think and act for yourself. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Company of people who influence you

” Remember, the thoughts that you think and the statements you make regarding yourself determine your mental attitude.

If you have a worthwhile objective, find the one reason why you can achieve it rather than hundreds of reasons why you can’t. “

Napoleon Hill

Worthwhile objective

” Failure always is a blessing when it forces one to acquire knowledge or to build habits that lead to the achievement of one’s major purpose in life. “

Napoleon Hill – “Outwitting the Devil: The Secret to Freedom and Success”

Failure

” All the breaks you need in life wait within your imagination.

Imagination is the workshop of your mind, capable of turning mind energy into accomplishment and wealth. “

Napoleon Hill

Imagination – the workshop of your mind

“Knowledge has no value except that which can be gained from its application towards some worthy end.”

Napoleon Hill, Think and Grow Rich

Knowledge

” The ladder of success is never crowded at the top. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Ladder of success

” There is one weakness in people for which there is no remedy.

It is the universal weakness of LACK OF AMBITION! “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Lack of Ambition

“One of the most common causes of failure is the habit of quitting when one is overtaken by temporary defeat.”

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Temporary defeat

” Love is essential for happiness, but the person who loves so deeply that his or her happiness is placed entirely in the hands of another, resembles the little lamb who crept into the den of the nice, gentle little wolf and begged to be permitted to lie down and go to sleep, or the canary. “

Napoleon Hill – “The Law of Success in Sixteen Lessons”

Love

” The leaders in every walk of life decide quickly, and firmly.

That is the major reason why they are leaders.

The world has the habit of making room for the man whose words and actions show that he knows where he is going. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Know where you’re going

” ASK any wise man what he most desires and he will, more than likely, say “more wisdom. “

Napoleon Hill – “The Law of Success in Sixteen Lessons”

More Wisdom

” You have a brain and mind of your own.

Use it, and reach your own decisions. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

You have a brain…Use it!

Thoughts are things,” and powerful things at that, when they are mixed with definiteness of purpose, persistence, and a burning desire…

Napoleon Hill

Thoughts are things

” Every person who wins in any undertaking must be willing to burn his ships and cut all sources of retreat.”

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

No retreat

” The mind has a definite way of clothing one’s thoughts in appropriate physical equivalents.

Think in terms of poverty and you will live in poverty.

Think in terms of opulence and you will attract opulence.

Through the eternal law of harmonious attraction, one’s thoughts always clothe themselves in material things appropriate unto their nature. “

Napoleon Hill – “You Can Work Your Own Miracles”

The Mind

” No man is your enemy, no man is your friend, every man is your teacher. “

Napoleon Hill – “The Prosperity Bible: The Greatest Writings of All Time on the Secrets to Wealth and Prosperity”

Every man is your teacher

” INSUFFICIENT EDUCATION.

This is a handicap that may be overcome with comparative ease.

Experience has proven that the best-educated people are often those who are known as ‘self-made’ or self-educated.

It takes more than a university degree to make one a person of education.

Any person who is educated has learned to get whatever they want in life without violating the rights of others.

Education consists not so much of knowledge, but of knowledge effectively and persistently applied.

People are paid not merely for what they know, but more particularly for what they do with what they know. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Self-Education

” Then accumulated knowledge is not wisdom?

A Great heavens, no!

If knowledge were wisdom, the achievements of science would not have been converted into implements of destruction. “

Napoleon Hill – “Outwitting the Devil: The Secret to Freedom and Success”

Knowledge vs Wisdom

” The entire world is made up of only two things, energy and matter.

In elementary physics we learn that neither matter nor energy (the only two realities known to man) can be created nor destroyed.

Both matter and energy can be transformed, but neither can be destroyed.

Life is energy, if it is anything.

If neither energy nor matter can be destroyed, of course life cannot be destroyed.

Life, like other forms of energy, may be passed through various processes of transition, or change, but it cannot be destroyed.

Death is mere transition.

If death is not mere change, or transition, then nothing comes after death except a long, eternal, peaceful sleep, and sleep is nothing to be feared.

Thus you may wipe out, forever, the fear of Death. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Fear of Death

” ‘Master Mind’, meaning a mind that is developed through the harmonious co-operation of two or more people who ally themselves for the purpose of accomplishing any given task. “

Napoleon Hill – “The Law of Success”

“Master Mind”

” KNOWLEDGE will not attract money, unless it is organized, and intelligently directed, through practical PLANS OF ACTION, to the DEFINITE END of accumulation of money.

Lack of understanding of this fact has been the source of confusion to millions of people who falsely believe that “knowledge is power.”

It is nothing of the sort!

Knowledge is only potential power.

It becomes power only when, and if, it is organized into definite plans of action, and directed to a definite end. “

Napoleon Hill – “Think and Grow Rich”

Knowledge is potential power

Sources :

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_Hill

https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/399.Napoleon_Hill

$10 Million each coin 🤯😳🤯

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Door of Opportunity…

Oliver Napoleon Hill (October 26, 1883 – November 8, 1970) was an American  self-help author.

He is best known for his book Think and Grow Rich (1937), which is among the 10 best-selling self-help books of all time.

Hill's works insisted that fervid expectations are essential to improving one's life.

Most of his books were promoted as expounding principles to achieve "success".
Napoleon Hill

Born : October 26, 1883
Pound, Virginia, U.S.

Died : November 8, 1970 (aged 87)
Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.

Occupation : Author,  journalist,  salesman, lecturer

Citizenship : American

Period : 1928–1970

Genre : Non-fiction, self-help


Notable works :

Think and Grow Rich (1937)
• The Law of Success (1928)
Outwitting the Devil (1938)

Spouse :

Florence Elizabeth Horner (1910–1935)

Rosa Lee Beeland (1937–1940?)

Annie Lou Norman (1943–1970)

Children : 3


Hill is, in modern times, a controversial figure.

Accused of fraud, modern historians also doubt many of his claims, such as that he met Andrew Carnegie and that he was an attorney.

Gizmodo has called him "the most famous conman you've probably never heard of".

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XcWmbFw1VmxEPxvF9CWdjzKXwPyDTrbMwj

Shiba(SHIB) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856

Tron(TRX) :

TCsJJkqt9xk1QZWQ8HqZHnqexR15TEowk8

Stellar(XLM) :

GBL4UKPHP2SXZ6Y3PRF3VRI5TLBL6XFUABZCZC7S7KWNSBKCIBGQ2Y54

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