Bitcoin/Crypto Wallet types

Choose the wallet that better suits You

You may choose a wallet based on what best suits your needs. we will explore various
types of wallets and clients:

• Web
• Desktop
• Mobile
• Hardware
• Paper (Not Secure Anymore)

Wallets and clients can be chosen based on a number of criteria:

  • How much bitcoin is being used / stored
  • IT proficiency (beginner vs. expert)
  • Type of device
  • Occasional use vs. everyday use
  • Security and privacy concerns
  • Cryptocurrencies being used
  • Type and complexity of transactions

Find the wallet that’s right for you:


https://bitcoin.org/en/choose-your-wallet

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DEX Aggregators 2022

Top DEX Aggregators

Decentralized exchange (DEX) aggregators, also known as liquidity aggregators, compile the exchange rates of numerous DEX platforms and show you a list of platforms offering the best value for your crypto trades.

Moreover, you can access a deeper pool of liquidity by trading on multiple DEXs using a single trading dashboard. Think of them as the search engines of the DeFi landscape, scouring DEXs for the best deals so that you can swap your crypto assets with the lowest fees.

1Inch

Although it is a DEX in its own right, 1Inch’s main USP is its position as a top DEX aggregator across multiple blockchains. The network supports trades across major ecosystems like Ethereum and Binance and smaller networks like Polygon, Arbitrum, and Optimism.

As an aggregator, 1Inch gives you access to over 120 liquidity sources, with 68 on Ethereum, 39 on Binance, and 24 on Polygon. With daily trading volumes averaging close to $300 million from 300,000+ active users, it is one of the most active DEX aggregators in 2021.

The native token of the 1Inch DEX is also called 1INCH. It functions as both a utility token and a governance token for the protocol. 1INCH is a multi-chain token available on the Ethereum and Binance Smart Chain.

1Inch is one of the best DEX aggregators for crypto rookies, with detailed documentation and a well-developed Help Center filled with starter guides, FAQs, and more.



Slingshot

Slingshot grew out of DEX.AG, a DEX aggregator platform created in late 2018 as part of a hackathon event. At its launch, it supported seven major DEX, including Uniswap, Kyber, and DDEX.

After million-dollar funding rounds, DEX.AG was rebranded as Slingshot in November 2020. Slingshot works on Ethereum-based protocols – Polygon (formerly MATIC) and Arbitrum One. Across the two, you get access to over 326 exchanges/liquidity sources.

Slingshot is a very popular choice among experienced cryptocurrency traders due to its relative simplicity and advanced functionality. The average daily volumes touching over half a billion dollars is a testament to the platform’s popularity.

However, due to a threadbare interface and lack of easily accessible website FAQs, guides, and documentation, Slingshot is not a very beginner-friendly DEX platform.



Totle Swap

Totle is a DEX aggregator that also dips into synthetic asset providers, allowing traders to engage with tokenized assets of many shapes and sizes. Unfortunately, the platform seems to be dormant, with no updates since mid-2021 and a lack of stats on any major crypto platform.


ParaSwap

ParaSwap is a versatile DEX aggregator supporting Ethereum, Binance, Polygon, and Avalanche blockchains. In addition, it has a native token for liquidity and governance purposes called the PSP.

While it is one of the more feature-packed and beginner-friendly DEX aggregators, ParaSwap is still in the growth phase. In 2021, the platform reported 1.4 million total users over time, with daily transaction volumes peaking around $150 million.

ParaSwap allows you access to swap and payment options across 75 DEX platforms, focusing on better market rates and cheaper gas fees. In addition, decentralized applications (dApps) can also integrate with ParaSwap to better streamline token swaps.


Matcha

Like 1Inch and Slingshot, Matcha is both a DEX aggregator and a decentralized exchange in itself. Powered by 0x Labs, the platform focuses on transparency, lower fees, smart order routing, and easier access.

Thanks to a recent partnership with MoonPay, Matcha can now accept payments in fiat currencies, a first for DEX platforms. This could be very useful for newcomers – you can directly purchase cryptos using regular currency on Matcha and start trading immediately.

Matcha provides access to over 50 liquidity sources and DEX platforms across three blockchain systems – Ethereum, Binance, and Polygon. Despite being one of the younger platforms on this list (launched in 2020), Matcha boasts over 2.5k daily traders. Its daily volumes are close to $150 million.


Uniswap V3

Uniswap is a DEX platform based on the Automated Marker Maker (AMM) model. After its launch in November 2018, the DEX has seen a meteoric rise among crypto circles. As of Q4 2021, it routinely tops the charts of DEX platforms with the largest daily volumes with $5.5 billion.

The platform is currently in its third iteration – Uniswap V3. Based on the Ethereum Blockchain, Uniswap gives you access to over 50 liquidity pools, with 285 cryptocurrencies across more than 350 markets. The USDC-ETH pair alone accounts for over $1.8 billion worth of trades each day.

While not a DEX aggregator per se, Uniswap is still a great option to consider due to its sheer size and reach. Most of the other aggregators on this list have Uniswap as a major partner and source of trading options.


PancakeSwap

PancakeSwap launched in 2020 to work like Uniswap, but on the Binance Smart Chain instead of Ethereum. Like Uniswap, PancakeSwap is a DEX platform with an AMM operating model, with an additional focus on yield farming based on the native CAKE token.

Regardless of the sweet and syrupy “cake” theme, PancakeSwap is a major force on the DeFi scene, thanks to the sheer size of the Binance blockchain. It easily slots into the top three most active DEX platforms, with daily volumes exceeding $2.6 billion.

The platform is user-friendly, with detailed community guides, troubleshooting articles, and customer support. In addition, you can trade in over 30 major cryptos backed by an equal number of high-quality liquidity pools.


SushiSwap

Is based directly on Uniswap, with a fork in the original code created by its anonymous developer who goes by the pseudonym Chef Nomi.

Right from the outset, SushiSwap has courted controversy. To generate liquidity, its founder encouraged users to deposit in Uniswap tokens, leeching away almost $810 million from Uniswap in a “vampire attack.”

Chef Nomi then proceeded to withdraw his liquidity from the project, generating a massive controversy. Ultimately, he backtracked and returned all funds, relinquishing his control over the project to a new team.

Since these early missteps, SushiSwap has maintained healthy growth rates in the crowded arena of Ethereum-based DEX/AMM platforms. It currently ranks in the top ten list, with daily volumes of close to $800 million across 400+ markets.


dYdX

dYdX is a major DEX platform with a heavy focus on reducing the inflated gas prices on Ethereum. It is one of the few platforms to offer gasless deposits to new users who deposit above a certain threshold. The platform has plans to make this a permanent feature.

dYdX is also working closely with StarkWare to deploy a Layer 2 scalability engine designed to reduce gas costs and trading fees further. Using Ethereum Smart Contracts, dYdX enables traders to invest in the crypto-equivalent of futures trading and other derivatives.

Due to its unique position on the Ethereum ecosystem, dYdX has managed to gain ground on other more popular DEX platforms like Uniswap. As a result, at the end of 2021, dYdX is ranked second on the list of the most active DEX platforms, with daily volumes of $5.4 billion.


Raydium

Instead of Ethereum or Binance, the Raydium platform operates on the highly promising Solana blockchain. As a result, the Ethereum-competitor has a vibrant developer ecosystem, and its cryptocurrency has grown at least 16,000% since January 2021.

The increased interest in the Solana blockchain has also helped Raydium, an AMM platform based on the Serum DEX.

The platform gives access to over 430 trading pairs, with Solana-USDT being the most popular.

The native token, also called Raydium, is the foundation of all future apps and projects on the Solana and Serum ecosystems.

The project’s primary focus is to function as the engine of DeFi on Solana. However, with current daily volumes already reaching $300 million, Raydium shows a lot of promise for future growth.


TraderJoe

Launched in 2020 as a less expensive, more efficient alternative to Ethereum,  Avalanche blockchain focuses on decentralized apps.

Its AVAX token has hit all-time high demands in late 2021, thanks to positive media coverage and high-profile partnerships with entities like Deloitte.

This surge has also propelled TraderJoe, the major DEX platform based around Avalanche blockchain, to the top of the DEX pile in recent times. Its pole position in the blockchain ecosystem has helped drive TraderJoe’s daily trades close to $1 billion.

You can trade major cryptos, stake and gain the native JOE token as rewards, lend other cryptos and farm yields on the TraderJoe platform. With low fees and over 170 markets, TraderJoe is a top target for anyone interested in the Avalanche ecosystem.


Top Pick: Uniswap

The Top pick is Uniswap, for its deep liquidity pools, its user-friendliness, and its commitment to continuous innovation.

As the various DeFi ecosystems continue to grow and expand, the importance of DEX aggregators and AMM platforms will increase further.

These platforms serve a vital purpose, finding liquidity and facilitating transactional activity across multiple blockchains.

To say that the future of DeFi, and by extension, the future of finance as we know it, hinges on DEX aggregators would not be an overstatement.


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#1 Book of the Year I recomend reading…

“Ego is the Enemy”


“Re-read it each year. It’s that important.”

Derek Sivers, author of “Anything you want”

“This is a book I want every athlete, aspiring leader, entrepreneur, thinker and doer to read. Ryan Holiday is one of the most promising young writers of his generation.”

George Raveling, Hall of Fame Basketball Coach

“Ryan Holiday is one of his generation’s finest thinkers, and this book is his best yet.”

Steven Pressfield, author of “The War of Art” and “Gates of Fire

“Ryan Holiday has written a brilliant and engaging book, well beyond his years… It is invaluable.”

Brian Koppelman, screenwriter and director, “Rounders”, “Ocean’s Thirteen” and “Billions”

Ego Is the Enemy

“While the history books are filled with tales of obsessive, visionary geniuses who remade the world in their image with sheer, almost irrational force, I’ve found that history is also made by individuals who fought their egos at every turn, who eschewed the spotlight, and who put their higher goals above their desire for recognition.” – from the Prologue

Many of us insist the main impediment to a full, successful life is the outside world. In fact, the most common enemy lies within: our ego. Early in our careers, it impedes learning and the cultivation of talent. With success, it can blind us to our faults and sow future problems. In failure, it magnifies each blow and makes recovery more difficult. At every stage, ego holds us back.

The Ego is the Enemy draws on a vast array of stories and examples, from literature to philosophy to history. We meet fascinating figures like Howard Hughes, Katharine Graham, Bill Belichick, and Eleanor Roosevelt, all of whom reached the highest levels of power and success by conquering their own egos. Their strategies and tactics can be ours as well.

But why should we bother fighting ego in an era that glorifies social media, reality TV, and other forms of shameless self-promotion?  Armed with the lessons in this book, as Holiday writes, “you will be less invested in the story you tell about your own specialness, and as a result, you will be liberated to accomplish the world-changing work you’ve set out to achieve.


RYAN HOLIDAY


Ryan Holiday is a strategist and writer. He dropped out of college at nineteen to appren­tice under Robert Greene, author of “The 48 Laws of Power”, and later served as the director of mar­keting for American Apparel.

His company, Brass Check, has advised clients like Google, TASER, and Complex, as well as many prominent bestselling authors.

Holiday has written four previous books, most recently The Obstacle Is the Way, which has been translated into seventeen languages and has a cult following among NFL coaches, world-class athletes, TV personalities, political leaders, and others around the world.

He lives on a small ranch outside Austin, Texas. 


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Merry X-Mass – Crypto Style

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Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business – A Complete Guide

Why Start a Bitcoin Mining Business?

If you love working from home, then you should consider starting an internet based business.

One of the businesses that you can easily start at home with a computer and mining rigs is bitcoin mining.

Simply put, bitcoin is a digital currency that operates independently of any country’s central bank. In order to get an updated value of the worth of a bitcoin, you can make use of Google’s currency converter; it is a reliable platform to know the value of bitcoin each time.

If you are interested in mining bitcoin, then you have two options to follow.

You can choose to mine a block of bitcoins from the computer or you can choose to pool.

If you want quick returns on your investment, then joining a pool is your best option because mining a block of bitcoins from your computer may take you a month or more before you get any return on your investment.

Please note that if you join a pool, you will only get smaller payments, but you can be rest assured that you will get them at a regular basis.

Starting a bitcoin mining business can be rewarding but you would have to compete with other well established bitcoin miners on the World Wide Web. The fact that you will be competing with people from all over the globe is enough reason for you to be result oriented and at the same be creative with your bitcoin mining business.

So, if you have done the required online or offline bitcoin mining related courses, then you might want to venture into this business.

Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business – A Complete Guide

Industry Overview

Bitcoin mining in its simplest term is the practice of adding transaction records to Bitcoin’s public ledger of previous transactions or block chain.

This ledger of previous transactions is called the block chain as it is a chain of blocks. The block chain serves to confirm transactions to the rest of the network as having taken place.

As a matter of fact, Bitcoin miners help keep the Bitcoin network secure by approving transactions.

Mining is indeed an important and integral part of Bitcoin that ensures fairness while keeping the Bitcoin network stable, safe and highly secured.

Bitcoin mining as the name implies is similar to the mining of other commodities: it requires deliberate and calculated effort and it slowly makes new currency available at a rate that looks like the rate at which commodities like gold and copper et al are mined from the ground. Mining is also a mechanism used to introduce Bitcoins into the system.

Bitcoin is a type of digital currency that is created and held electronically; it is a cryptocurrency and a digital payment system that is invented by an unknown programmer, or perhaps a group of programmers. No one controls it.

Unlike Dollars, Euros, Pounds and other currencies, bitcoins are not printed, they are produced by people and businesses running computers all around the world, using software that solves mathematical problems.

If you want to start mining bitcoin, you would need an online wallet where your bitcoins will be stored.

There are several wallet options available online for bitcoin mining. The rule of thumb to follow before choosing an online wallet for your bitcoin mining is to choose a wallet that will allow you save bitcoins, buy bitcoins, use bitcoins and also accept bitcoins as a means of payment.

The Bitcoin (cryptocurrency and a digital payment system) industry is indeed a large internet based industry and pretty much active in countries such as United States of America, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Nigeria, Sweden, Australia, Japan, China, Germany, and Canada et al.

Despite the fact that the bitcoin mining business is still much of a green business, the business will continue to blossom because more and more users will embrace the use of bitcoins in the nearest future.

So, if you have an entrepreneurial mentality and you wish to join a massive technological revolution, you can start your own bitcoin mining business.

The truth is that you can build a bitcoin mining business even if you are not too ICT savvy and have limited capital to invest in software development and infrastructure, as long as you have internet access and you know how to use the internet.

Some of the factors that encourage entrepreneurs to start their own bitcoin mining business could be that the business is easy to set up and the startup capital is indeed affordable; you can actually start your own bitcoin mining business from the comfort of your house.

All you need to do is to create an office somewhere in your house. You don’t necessarily need to see the people you are doing business with since you can transact bitcoin mining business with clients from any part of the world.

Lastly, starting a bitcoin mining business requires professionalism, advanced mathematics skills and a good grasp of how cryptocurrency and the digital payment system works on a global platform.

Besides, you would need to get the required certifications and license and also meet the required standard for such business before you can be allowed to start a bitcoin mining business in the United States.

Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business – Market Research and Feasibility Studies

Demographics and Psychographics

The demographic and psychographic composition of those who require the services of bitcoin miners are not restricted to bitcoin exchange and trading companies and bitcoin traders, people and organizations that make online transactions in your immediate community or state, but it cuts across people on the cyber space who make use of bitcoins from all over the world.

This is so because bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and a digital payment system used basically on the internet hence the leverage to work for people and organization all across the globe.

So, if you are looking towards defining the demographics of your bitcoin mining business, you should make it all encompassing. It should include bitcoin exchange and trading companies and bitcoin traders, programmers, investors, and internet – business oriented people and organizations within and outside the United States.

List of Niche ideas Within the Bitcoin Mining Business That You Can Specialize in

Most bitcoin mining companies tend to operate the general bitcoin mining business that a standard bitcoin mining poll/company is expected to offer, that is why it seems like there are no niche areas in the industry.

But on the other hand, some bitcoin mining company may decide to major in some key areas such as:

  • Bitcoin cloud mining
  • Bitcoin cloud hashing
  • Providing other related bitcoin, cryptocurrency and digital payment system consulting and advisory services

The Level of Competition in the Bitcoin Mining Services Industry

The level of competition in the cryptocurrency and a digital payment system industry does not in any way depend on the location of the business since most people that mine bitcoin can operate from any part of the world and still effectively compete in the bitcoin mining line of business cum cryptocurrency and a digital payment system industry.

When it comes to bitcoin mining, distance is never a barrier when competing for clients especially international clients.

What most clients want is result, hence they are ready to make use of bitcoin miners or bitcoin mining platforms no matter the part of the world they operate from as long as they have good track record and can deliver excellent results when it comes to mining and selling bitcoins to them.

There are several bitcoin miners and bitcoin mining pools scattered all around the United States and in the cyber space.

So, if you choose to start your own bitcoin mining company in the United States, you will definitely meet stiffer competitions not only amongst bitcoin mining companies in the United States, but also all over the globe especially if you choose to specialize in cryptocurrency and digital payment system.

List of Well – Known Brands in the Bitcoin Mining Business

In every industry, there are always brands that perform better or are better regarded by customers and the general public than others. Some of these brands are those that have been in the industry for a long time, while others are best known for the results they deliver.

These are some of the leading bitcoin mining companies (bitcoin mining pools) in the United States of America and also in the globe:

Economic Analysis

As an ICT aspiring entrepreneur who is looking for a business that requires programming and mathematics skills and perhaps minimal startup capital to start, then you can consider starting a bitcoin mining pool.

The cost of running a standard bitcoin mining pool when compared to the turnover you get can be poles apart (this is applicable when you have been able to establish your feet in the industry).

One thing is certain when it comes to the bitcoin mining business and most internet based businesses, you are sure of making profits when you successfully produce results that are measurable.

As a matter of fact, the cost of running the business from start to finish could be restricted to the cost of making phone calls, transportation and internet subscriptions, PR and of course bitcoin mining and hashing hardware and software et al.

Starting Your Bitcoin Mining Company from Scratch vs Buying a Franchise

When it comes to starting a business of this nature, it will pay you to start from the scratch as against buying a franchise.

First and foremost, it is your ability to mine or hash bitcoin that matters not a brand name.

Except you want to join a well-established bitcoin mining pool that fits into your business ideology.

Unfortunately, you can hardly find a franchise of a bitcoin mining pool – company to purchase meaning that if you want to own a bitcoin mining (pool) business, then you must be ready to start from the scratch.

This is so because the business is easy to start if you have the required expertise and it is still pretty much thriving and there are loads of opportunities available to aspiring entrepreneurs that are interested in the industry.

The truth is that it will pay you to start your bitcoin mining company from the scratch. Starting from the scratch will afford you the opportunity to conduct thorough market survey and feasibility studies before choosing a location to launch the business.

Please note that most of the big and successful bitcoin mining companies around started from the scratch and they were able to build a solid business brand.

Possible Threats and Challenges You Will Face When Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business

If you decide to start your own bitcoin mining business today, one of the major challenges you are likely going to face is the presence of well – established bitcoin mining companies who are offering same services that you intend offering. The only way to avoid this challenge is to create your own market.

Some other threats that you are likely going to face as a bitcoin mining company operating in the United States are hosting issues, installation or upkeep troubles, heat, unfavorable government policies, and global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing/spending power. There is hardly anything you can do as regards these threats other than to be optimistic that things will continue to work for your good.

Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business – Legal Matters

Best legal entity to use for this type of business

Generally, you have the options of either choosing a general partnership, limited liability company which is commonly called an LLC, or a sole proprietorship for a business such as a bitcoin mining company.

Ordinarily, general partnership should have been the ideal business structure for a small – scale bitcoin mining business especially if you are just starting out with moderate startup capital.

But people prefer limited liability Company for obvious reasons. As a matter of fact, if your intention is to grow the business and have clients both corporate and individual from all across the United States of America and other countries of the world, then choosing general partnership is not an option for you. Limited Liability Company, LLC will be highly suitable for you.

Setting up an LLC protects you from personal liability. If anything goes wrong in the business, it is only the money that you invested into the limited liability company that will be at risk. It is not so for sole proprietorships and general partnerships. Limited liability companies are simpler and more flexible to operate and you don’t need a board of directors, shareholders meetings and other managerial formalities.

These are some of the factors you should consider before choosing a legal entity for your bitcoin mining (pool) business; limitation of personal liability, ease of transferability, admission of new owners, investors’ expectation and of course taxes.

If you take your time to critically study the various legal entities to use for your bitcoin mining business, you will agree that limited liability company; an LLC is most suitable. You can start this type of business as limited liability company (LLC) and in future convert it to a ‘C’ corporation or an ‘S’ corporation especially when you have the plans of going public.

Catchy Business Name ideas Suitable for a Bitcoin Mining Company

Generally, when it comes to choosing a name for a business, it is expected that you should be creative because whatever name you choose for your business will go a long way to create a perception of what the business represents. Usually it is the norm for people to follow the trend in the industry they intend operating from when naming their business.

Insurance Policies

In the United States and in most countries of the world, you can’t operate a business without having some of the basic insurance policy covers that are required by the industry you want to operate from. So, it is imperative to create a budget for insurance policy covers and perhaps consult an insurance broker to guide you in choosing the best and most appropriate insurance policies for your bitcoin mining business.

Here are some of the basic insurance policy covers that you should consider purchasing if you want to start your own bitcoin mining business in the United States of America:

  • General insurance
  • Health insurance
  • Liability insurance
  • Workers compensation
  • Overhead expense disability insurance
  • Business owner’s policy group insurance
  • Payment protection insurance
  • Intellectual Property Protection/Trademark

If you are considering starting your own bitcoin mining business, usually you may not have any need to file for intellectual property protection/trademark. This is so because the nature of the business makes it possible for you to successfully run the business without having any cause to challenge anybody in court for illegally making use of your company’s intellectual properties.

Is Professional Certification Needed to Run a Bitcoin Mining Business?

Apart from the results you produce, professional certification is one of the main reasons why most bitcoin mining companies stand out.

If you want to make an impact in the Bitcoin industry, you should work towards acquiring all the needed certifications in your area of specialization.

Certification validates your competency and shows that you are highly skilled, committed to your career, and up-to-date in this competitive market.

These are some of the certifications you can work towards achieving if you want to run your own bitcoin mining company:

  • Certified Bitcoin Professional (CBP) | Crypto Currency Certification
  • Blockcerts Certification
  • Cryptocurrency certification
  • Ethereum certification
  • Blockchain professional certification

List of Legal Documents You Need to Run a Bitcoin Mining Company

These are some of the basic legal documents that you are expected to have in place if you want to legally run your own bitcoin mining business in the United States of America:

  • Certificate of Incorporation
  • Business License and Certification
  • Business Plan
  • Non – disclosure Agreement
  • Employment Agreement (offer letters)
  • Operating Agreement for LLCs
  • Insurance Policy
  • Contract documents
  • Online Privacy Policy Document (basically   for online payment portal)
  • Company Bylaws
  • Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
  • Apostille (for those who intend operating beyond the United States of America) 

Financing Your Bitcoin Mining Company

Aside from the amount required to purchase bitcoin mining software and hardware, bitcoins and of course cryptocurrency and other forms of digital payment required to trade with, starting a bitcoin mining business can be cost effective especially if you choose to run the business from your home, share office space with a friend or make use of a virtual office.

Securing a standard office is part of what will consume a large chunk of your startup capital, but if you choose to start the business on a small scale, you may not have the need to go source for fund to finance the business.

When it comes to financing a business, one of the major factors that you should consider is to write a good business plan.

If you have a good and workable business plan document in place, you may not have to labor yourself before convincing your bank, investors and your friends to invest in your business.

Here are some of the options you can explore when sourcing for start – up capital for your bitcoin mining/trading business:

  • Raising money from personal savings and sale of personal stocks and properties
  • Sell of shares to interested investors
  • Pitching your business idea and applying for business grants and seed funding from donor organizations and angel investors
  • Source for soft loans from your family members and your friends

Choosing a Suitable Location for your Bitcoin Mining Business

Bitcoin mining business and most internet service based type of businesses do not require that you see physically with your clients, hence the location you chose does not necessarily need to be top-notch.

But the fact that you can operate your bitcoin mining business from your home does not mean that location has little influence on the success of a bitcoin mining company.

If you have taken your time to study the bitcoin mining and other internet based businesses, you will realize that they are willing to pay expensive rents in order to stay in an ICT hub; a place with pretty strong internet network and of course a place where ICT activities are at its peak.

It is important to note that a business facility in a good location does not come cheap hence you should be able to allocate enough fund for leasing/renting in your budget.

If you are new to the dynamics of choosing a location for a business such as bitcoin mining business, then you should feel free to talk to a business consultant or a realtor who has a full grasp of the city and perhaps country you intend starting your company.

So, if you are looking for a location for your bitcoin mining company, ensure that it is a place that is located in an ICT hub; a place with pretty strong internet network and of course a place where ICT activities are at its peak.

Of course, you would not want to locate this type of business in the outskirts of town or a place without strong internet network. Your clients should be able to drive down and locate your office with little or no difficulty.

Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business – Technical and Manpower Details

In order to successfully launch a bitcoin mining business, you will definitely need bitcoin mining software apps and hardware such as Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) machines and other cryptocurrency and digital payment system related software apps and wallet.

So also, you will need computers, internet facility, telephone, fax machine and office furniture (chairs, tables, and shelves).

When it comes to choosing between renting and leasing an office space, the size of the bitcoin mining company you want to build, and your entire budget for the business should influence your choice.

If you have enough capital to run a standard bitcoin mining company, then you should consider the option of leasing a facility for your office.

As regards the number of employees that you are expected to kick start the business with, you would need to consider your finance before making the decision.

Averagely, you would need a Chief Executive Officer or President (you can occupy this role), an Admin and Human Resource Manager, Bitcoin Miners and Hashers, Programmers and Software Developers, Business Development Executive/marketing Executive, Customer Service Officer or Front Desk Officer, and Accountant.

Over and above, you would need a minimum of 8 key staff to effectively run a medium scale but standard bitcoin mining company.

Please note that there will be times when you are expected to go out of your way to hire experts to help you handle some high – profile internet based currency consultancy contracts especially from big corporations.

If you are just starting out, you may not have the financial capacity or required business structure to retain all the professionals that are expected to work with you which is why you should make plans to partner with other programmers and software app developers and computer engineers that operates as freelancers.

The Service Delivery Process of a Bitcoin Mining Company

It is the tradition in the cryptocurrency industry for bitcoin miners to help keep the Bitcoin network secure by approving transactions.

The truth is that mining is an important and integral part of Bitcoin that ensures fairness while keeping the Bitcoin network stable, safe and secure.

In the cryptocurrency and other forms of digital payment system industry, bitcoin miners use special software to solve math problems and are issued a certain number of bitcoins in exchange. This provides a smart process of issuing the currency and also creates an incentive for more people to mine.

For instance, when a block is discovered, the miners are rewarded a certain number of bitcoins, which is agreed-upon by everyone in the network.

Currently the reward is 6.25 bitcoins and this value will halve every 210,000 blocks.

Additionally, the bitcoin miner is awarded the fees paid by users sending transactions. The fee is an incentive for the bitcoin miner to include the transaction in their block.

It is important to state that a bitcoin mining (pool) company may decide to improvise or adopt any business process and structure that will guarantee them efficiency and flexibility; the above stated business cum services process is not cast on stone.

Starting a Bitcoin Mining Business – The Marketing Plan

Marketing ideas and strategies

As a bitcoin mining company, you would have to prove your worth over and over again before you can be awarded any bitcoin mining and hashing contracts from corporate clients.

So, if you have plans to start your own bitcoin mining company, it will pay you to first build a successful career in the digital payment system industry.

People and organizations will hire your services to help them handle all their bitcoin mining and hashing needs if they know that they are going to get good returns on their investment.

So, when you are drafting your marketing plans and strategies for your bitcoin mining company, make sure that you create a compelling personal and company profile.

Aside from your qualifications and experience, it is important to clearly state in practical terms what you have been able to achieve in time past as it relates to the cryptocurrency industry and the organizations you have worked for in time past.

This will help boost your chances in the market place when sourcing for bitcoin mining and hashing contracts.

Businesses these days are aware of the power of the internet and which is why they will do all they can to maximize the internet to market their services.

In other words, a larger percentage of your marketing efforts should be directed to internet users.

Here are some of the platforms you can utilize to market your bitcoin mining company:

  • Introduce your business by sending introductory letters alongside your brochure to all the bitcoin exchange and trading companies and bitcoin traders, programmers, investors, and internet – business oriented people and organizations within and outside the United States
  • Promptness in bidding for bitcoin mining and hashing contracts from bitcoin exchange and trading companies cum bitcoin traders, programmers, investors, and internet – business oriented people and organizations within and outside the United States
  • Advertise your business in relevant programming magazines, radio and TV stations (make yourself available for bitcoin mining and cryptocurrency related talk shows and interactive sessions on TV and Radio)
  • List your business on local directories
  • Attend international bitcoin mining and cryptocurrency related seminars and business fairs
  • Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets
  • Join related associations around you with the main aim of networking and marketing your services; you are likely going to get referrals from such networks
  • Engage the services of online marketing executives and business developers to carry out direct marketing

Factors That Will Help You Get the Right Product Pricing

Some of the key factors that will help you mine or hash bitcoin in a profitable pricing system is to ensure that you work with highly talented programmers and mathematicians in your bitcoin mining pool.

You should also ensure that you get your bitcoin mining software and hardware at good deal not forgetting to run your maintenance as at when due.

Another strategy that will help you offer your bitcoin mining and hashing services at the right price is to ensure that you cut operational and maintenance cost to the barest minimum, and channel your efforts towards marketing and promoting your brand name.

Aside from the fact that this strategy will help you save cost, it will also help you get the right pricing for your products.

Strategies to Boost Your Bitcoin Mining Brand Awareness and Create Your Corporate Identity

If your intention of starting a bitcoin mining company is to grow the business beyond the city where you are going to be operating from to become a national and international brand, then you must be ready to spend money on promotion and advertisement of your brand.

In promoting your brand and corporate identity, you should leverage on both print and electronic media and also social media (the internet).

As a matter of fact, it is cost effective to use the internet and social media platforms to promote your brands, besides it is pretty much effective and wide reaching.

Another strategy is to sponsor relevant programmer/ICT based programs, TV and radio programs, advertise your business in relevant magazines and newspapers. Below are the platforms you can leverage on to boost your brand and to promote and advertise your business.

Place adverts on ICT magazines and related newspapers, radio and TV stations

Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from your loyal customers

Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms to promote your business

Ensure that you position your banners and billboards in strategic positions all around your city

Distribute your fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhood

Contact bitcoin exchange and trading companies cum bitcoin traders, programmers, investors, and internet – business oriented people and organization within and outside the United States by calling them up and informing them of your organization and the bitcoin mining and hashing services you offer

Advertise your business in your official website and employ strategies that will help you pull traffic to the site

Brand all your official cars and ensure that all your staff members wear your branded shirt or cap at regular intervals.


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Anarchy Legacy

A Crypto Anarchist’s Legacy

Airfoil Dec 20, 2018

Timothy May on the cover of the second issue of Wired magazine with 2 fellow cypherpunks

Sadly, this past week we lost an icon that helped to spur the cypherpunk movement. Timothy May, who wrote The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto in 1988, lauched a movement that is still very prominent today.

For the uninitiated, a Crypto-Anarchist focuses on subverting the current laws and using new technologies to the benefit of the common man.

In the original manifesto, May says crypto-anarchy focuses on “encryption, digital money, anonymous networks, digital pseudonyms, zero-knowledge, reputations, information markets, black markets, collapse of governments”.

The manifesto was written just before the first crypto wars began during the early 1990’s.

The governments of the world fiercely opposed the general public using cryptographic encryption protocols.

The idea that a normal citizen could completely hide what they say in an electronic message was their biggest concern.

The governments cited national security as a concern (We’ve heard this excuse used many times before).

Tim May was embroiled in the center of this alongside his group of fellow cypherpunks.

RSA Security, a leading computer securty company founded by world-renowned cryptologists, created this poster against a hardware chip that used a US-government supplied encryption standard

The legislation of the anti-encryption laws would also affect payment processing technology. There was a large push back from tech companies that would have to deal with these issues first-hand.

The crypto wars of the 1990’s ended with the concession from the government that encryption was readily available around the world.

The public had won their first bout against the government surveillance state. Alongside the public, you had the cypherpunks and large tech companies that were all fighting a common threat.

There was not much of an issue in terms of encryption for quite a few more years.

Every few years afterward, the idea of backdoors into encryption schemes were brought up but nothing ever came about these new ideations.

The Crypto Wars Redux

The expansion of computational power and development of more efficient processing equipment closed the gap as to who can gain access to encryption software.

The widespread availabilty of software/hardware that can perform these cryptographic calculations involved in encryption and the ease of use has made it possible for the layman to encrypt their own personal messages, video calls,emails, and notes.

Encrypting an email with someone who has never imported a key to their keyring, or generated their own PGP public/private key pair is a thing of the past.

Many of the services that exist today offer these solutions out of the box. The process has become much easier for all parties involved.

Anyone that is now using this technology benefits from this on a privacy and security level.

With all parties benefitting, the leviathan rears its head once more. Australia has passed an anti-encryption bill that will force large tech companies to allow the Australian government to obtain hardware access(citing national security as a major reason).

Outrage has spilled out of the larger tech companies. The end-to-end zero knowledge messaging/calling app, Signal, has taken a stand against this bill.

This sounds very similar to the issues Tim May was battling with during the early days of the First Crypto War.

The cypherpunks came out on top and I’m sure this legislation will face a similar fate.

May’s Impact on the World

The imprint that Timothy May left on the world is profound. The mass adoption of encryption as well as cryptocurrencies shows just how far ahead of the times he was.

May urged the importance of privacy.

He insisted on the use of encryption to keep your communications private.

Currently on a majority of mobile phones there are applications that provide encrypted communications. Whatsapp uses the Signal protocol which was developed by cypherpunk Moxie Marlinspike.

The rise of cryptocurrencies is an ideal that May was very hopeful for.

May did come out against the anti-privacy issues of bitcoin.

There are projects that offer solutions for this privacy debate.

Much of the developer-base of these certain cryptocurrencies have their foundation based in the cypherpunk tradition.

The Cryptocurrencies that aim for a privacy by default mechanism are monero and the soon to launch GRIN which uses the Mimblewimble Protocol (To see an extremely entertaining introduction to the GRIN project via talk-to-text chat for privacy preservation, listen to the creator of Grin).

Zcash is moving in the direction of private by default and the superior cryptography of the ZK range proofs will help to create a very private cryptocurrency.

Cody WIlson and Amir Taaki who worked on projects focused on the crypto-anarchic tradition including Dark Wallet and Defense Distributed

The impact Tim May made on the world by helping to create a social movement shows the importance and strength of his ideals.

He has impacted a generation of people that are growing up in the digital age.

He influenced builders in the 21st century.

You have people creating new currencies, exposing government surveillance on a national scale, circumventing the broken bueracratic system by creating their own markets, anonymous internet protocols, as well as making encryption applicable to the common man (You can find a list of prominent cypherpunks here and also here).

There isn’t enough that can be said about the applications in which he believed could positively affect us.

May was cognizant of the encroaching all-seeing eye of the state but I believe we are in much better shape now than we’ve ever been.

There may be negative news about what we currently face as individuals, from the unprecedented surveillance of the Snowden leaks to the aforementioned Australian anti-encryption bill, but looking at the grand scheme of our daily lives, these tools and their functions have helped to create a much better day than May could have imagined in 1988.

He was a proponent for the industriousness of human nature to outpace the slow moving regulation that would try to bog down any progress.

You can listen here to what he thought people/creators should do when they develop ground breaking technology.

Arise, you have nothing to lose but your barbed wire fences!

Timothy C. May – “The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto”

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Arise…

Timothy C. May

Arise, you have nothing to lose but your barbed wired fences!

Timothy C. May

Wonder In Peace bright mind!

Thanks for the guidance and wisdom!

The world will never know how much they owe you!

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B-Money

Web Dai – B-Money

I am fascinated by Tim May's crypto-anarchy. 

Unlike the communities
traditionally associated with the word "anarchy", in a crypto-anarchy the
government is not temporarily destroyed but permanently forbidden and
permanently unnecessary.

It's a community where the threat of violence is
impotent because violence is impossible, and violence is impossible because its participants cannot be linked to their true names or physical locations.
 
Until now it's not clear, even theoretically, how such a community could operate.

A community is defined by the cooperation of its participants, and efficient cooperation requires a medium of exchange (money) and a way to enforce contracts.

Traditionally these services have been provided by the government or government sponsored institutions and only to legal entities.

In this article I describe a protocol by which these services can be provided to and by untraceable entities.
 
I will actually describe two protocols. The first one is impractical,because it makes heavy use of a synchronous and unjammable anonymous
broadcast channel. However it will motivate the second, more practical protocol.

In both cases I will assume the existence of an untraceable network, where senders and receivers are identified only by digital
pseudonyms (i.e. public keys) and every messages is signed by its sender
and encrypted to its receiver.
 
In the first protocol, every participant maintains a (seperate) database of how much money belongs to each pseudonym. These accounts collectively define the ownership of money, and how these accounts are updated is the subject of this protocol.
 
1. The creation of money. Anyone can create money by broadcasting the
solution to a previously unsolved computational problem. The only
conditions are that it must be easy to determine how much computing effort
it took to solve the problem and the solution must otherwise have no
value, either practical or intellectual. The number of monetary units
created is equal to the cost of the computing effort in terms of a
standard basket of commodities. For example if a problem takes 100 hours
to solve on the computer that solves it most economically, and it takes 3
standard baskets to purchase 100 hours of computing time on that computer
on the open market, then upon the broadcast of the solution to that
problem everyone credits the broadcaster's account by 3 units.
 
2. The transfer of money. If Alice (owner of pseudonym K_A) wishes to
transfer X units of money to Bob (owner of pseudonym K_B), she broadcasts
the message "I give X units of money to K_B" signed by K_A.
 
Upon the broadcast of this message, everyone debits K_A's account by X units and
credits K_B's account by X units, unless this would create a negative
balance in K_A's account in which case the message is ignored.
 
3. The effecting of contracts. A valid contract must include a maximum
reparation in case of default for each participant party to it. It should
also include a party who will perform arbitration should there be a
dispute. All parties to a contract including the arbitrator must broadcast
their signatures of it before it becomes effective. Upon the broadcast of
the contract and all signatures, every participant debits the account of
each party by the amount of his maximum reparation and credits a special
account identified by a secure hash of the contract by the sum the maximum
reparations. The contract becomes effective if the debits succeed for
every party without producing a negative balance, otherwise the contract
is ignored and the accounts are rolled back. A sample contract might look
like this:
 
K_A agrees to send K_B the solution to problem P before 0:0:0 1/1/2000.
K_B agrees to pay K_A 100 MU (monetary units) before 0:0:0 1/1/2000. K_C
agrees to perform arbitration in case of dispute. K_A agrees to pay a
maximum of 1000 MU in case of default. K_B agrees to pay a maximum of 200
MU in case of default. K_C agrees to pay a maximum of 500 MU in case of
default.
 
4. The conclusion of contracts. If a contract concludes without dispute,
each party broadcasts a signed message "The contract with SHA-1 hash H
concludes without reparations." or possibly "The contract with SHA-1 hash
H concludes with the following reparations: ..." Upon the broadcast of all
signatures, every participant credits the account of each party by the
amount of his maximum reparation, removes the contract account, then
credits or debits the account of each party according to the reparation
schedule if there is one.
 
5. The enforcement of contracts. If the parties to a contract cannot agree
on an appropriate conclusion even with the help of the arbitrator, each
party broadcasts a suggested reparation/fine schedule and any arguments or
evidence in his favor. Each participant makes a determination as to the
actual reparations and/or fines, and modifies his accounts accordingly.
 
In the second protocol, the accounts of who has how much money are kept by
a subset of the participants (called servers from now on) instead of
everyone. These servers are linked by a Usenet-style broadcast channel.

The format of transaction messages broadcasted on this channel remain the
same as in the first protocol, but the affected participants of each
transaction should verify that the message has been received and
successfully processed by a randomly selected subset of the servers.
 
Since the servers must be trusted to a degree, some mechanism is needed to
keep them honest. Each server is required to deposit a certain amount of
money in a special account to be used as potential fines or rewards for
proof of misconduct. Also, each server must periodically publish and
commit to its current money creation and money ownership databases. Each
participant should verify that his own account balances are correct and
that the sum of the account balances is not greater than the total amount
of money created. This prevents the servers, even in total collusion, from
permanently and costlessly expanding the money supply. New servers can
also use the published databases to synchronize with existing servers.
 
The protocol proposed in this article allows untraceable pseudonymous
entities to cooperate with each other more efficiently, by providing them
with a medium of exchange and a method of enforcing contracts. The
protocol can probably be made more efficient and secure, but I hope this
is a step toward making crypto-anarchy a practical as well as theoretical
possibility.
 
-------
 
Appendix A: alternative b-money creation
 
One of the more problematic parts in the b-money protocol is money
creation. This part of the protocol requires that all of the account
keepers decide and agree on the cost of particular computations.
Unfortunately because computing technology tends to advance rapidly and
not always publicly, this information may be unavailable, inaccurate, or
outdated, all of which would cause serious problems for the protocol.
 
So I propose an alternative money creation subprotocol, in which account
keepers (everyone in the first protocol, or the servers in the second
protocol) instead decide and agree on the amount of b-money to be created
each period, with the cost of creating that money determined by an
auction. Each money creation period is divided up into four phases, as
follows:
 
1. Planning. The account keepers compute and negotiate with each other to
determine an optimal increase in the money supply for the next period.

Whether or not the account keepers can reach a consensus, they each
broadcast their money creation quota and any macroeconomic calculations
done to support the figures.
 
2. Bidding. Anyone who wants to create b-money broadcasts a bid in the
form of <x, y> where x is the amount of b-money he wants to create, and y
is an unsolved problem from a predetermined problem class. Each problem in
this class should have a nominal cost (in MIPS-years say) which is
publicly agreed on.
 
3. Computation. After seeing the bids, the ones who placed bids in the
bidding phase may now solve the problems in their bids and broadcast the
solutions.
 
4. Money creation. Each account keeper accepts the highest bids (among
those who actually broadcasted solutions) in terms of nominal cost per
unit of b-money created and credits the bidders' accounts accordingly

http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt

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Bitcoin Quotes

Bitcoin Quotes from around the World

“Bitcoin actually has the balance and incentives right, and that is why it is starting to take off. “

Julian Assange

Bitcoin has the balance and incentives right

” It isn’t obvious that the world had to work this way.

But somehow the universe smiles on encryption.”

Julian Assange

The universe smiles on encryption

” The innovation is that BTC is hard to shut down. […]

Designed from the ground up to survive under the most adversarial conditions. “

Hasu

Bitcoin is hard to shut down

” Bitcoin is the most successful privacy coin to date. “

Pierre Rochard

Most successful privacy coin to date

” Bitcoin is a mathematical miracle. “

Steve Wozniak (Apple Co-Founder)

Mathematical miracle

” Bitcoin is a technological innovation that happens once a species. “

Trace Mayer

Technological innovation that happens once in a species

” Bitcoin doesn’t care about who you are or what your feelings are.

Bitcoin represents equal opportunity to participate in a system not encumbered by our legacy fiat structures. “

White Rabbit

Participate in a system not encumbered by FIAT

” We’re here to unfuck the money and there’s no stopping us.

Fix the money, change the world. “

White Rabbit

Fix the money, change the world

” Hardly anybody actually understands money. “

Nick Szabo

Nobody underatands money

” When you have a disruptive technology, they call it a category killer.

Bitcoin is a serial killer – it’s going to go through 40 or 50 different industries. “

Dan Morehead

Bitcoin is a serial killer

” It’s 21 million or death.”

Robert Breedlove

21 million or death

” It might make sense just to get some in case it catches on. “

Satoshi Nakamoto

In case it catches on

” Trusted third parties are security holes. “

Nick Szabo

Trusted third parties

” There are only going to be 21 million coins, there are billions of people in the world, some reasonable percentage of who might find it interesting to own a piece of Bitcoin.”

Adam Back

21 Million Coins

” I think it’s essential for a program of this nature to be open source. “

Satoshi Nakamoto

Open Source

” SHA-256 is very strong. It’s not like the incremental step from MD5 to SHA1.

It can last several decades unless there’s some massive breakthrough attack. “

Satoshi Nakamoto

Sha-256

” Code mixed with robust game theory is superior to hierarchical command and control. “

ℭoinsure

Code superior to hierarchical command and control

” Given that money is one half of every commercial transaction and that whole civilizations literally rise and fall based on the quality of their money, we are talking about an awesome power, one that flies under the cover of night. “

Ron Paul

Money… an awesome power

” The world has to adapt to bitcoin, not the other way round. “

Herzmeister

The world has to adapt to bitcoin

” When I first bought bitcoin it took me two years of speculation to understand what Bitcoin really was.

But once I fully had a grasp of it, it was life altering. “

Russell Okung

Bitcoin is life altering

” Many countries stand to gain from Bitcoin’s adoption as it would remove their dependence on the US dollar and provide them with a feasible alternative. “

Misir Mahmudov

Bitcoin a feasible alternative to the US $

” Bitcoin is a optimist bet on the future, a bet on human ingenuity.

Gold is a pessimist bet on the past and, often a bet the end of civilization. “

Rodolfo Novak

Bitcoin a bet on Human Ingenuity

” Everyone has got to believe in something.

Why not believe in something verifiable and unforgeable. “

Hass McCook

Believe in something verifiable and unforgeable

” Open source software is a meritocracy of ideas, not of people.

So people are always talking about “Who controls Bitcoin?”

Good ideas control Bitcoin.

Not people.”

Ben Prentice

Good ideeas control Bitcoin

“Bitcoin is a seed of hope in a society which lost vision years ago and perspective just recently. “

Kim Neunert

Bitcoin a seed of hope

” Bitcoin has an inescapable, unavoidable, and omnipotent magnetism for the brightest and most revolutionary minds on the planet.

I’ve never witnessed anything like it. “

Brandon Bridge

Bitcoin’s magnetism

” This is why proof of work needs to be expensive, if it is cheap you can roll back things easily.

You want it to be very difficult to change history.

The only way to make it difficult to change history is to make the process of writing the current history very expensive. “

Jimmy Song

Difficult to change history

” Bitcoin is like gold but with this magical ability that you can teleport it.”

Vijay Boyapati

Bitcoin magical ability to teleport it

” Can Bitcoin be stopped?

“Not really, this thing is a beast.

As Mises wrote:

Ideas can only be overcome by other ideas. “

Trace Mayer

Bitcoin cannot be stopped

“I’m not here to fix Bitcoin.”

Michael Saylor

Fix bitcoin

” Buying bitcoin is the most powerful protest an individual can make against the current economic system. “

Luc Dossis

Buying bitcoin is the most powerful protest

” These numbers have nothing to do with the technology of the devices; they are the maximums that thermodynamics will allow.

And they strongly imply that brute-force attacks against 256-bit keys will be infeasible until computers are built from something other than matter and occupy something other than space. “

Bruce Schneier

Maximums that thermodynamics will allow

” Cryptocurrency is such a powerful concept that it can almost overturn governments. “

Charles Lee

Cryptocurrency can almost overturn governments

” Bitcoin will do to banks what email did to the postal industry. “

Rick Falkvinge

Bitcoin is the email for the postal industry

” I do think Bitcoin is the first [encrypted money] that has the potential to do something like change the world. “

Peter Thiel

Bitcoin has the potential to change the world

” Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the Internet. “

Roger Ver

Bitcoin the most important invention in the history since the Internet

” Gold is a great way to preserve wealth, but it is hard to move around. You do need some kind of alternative and Bitcoin fits the bill. “

Jim Rickards

Bitcoin fits the bill as a way to preserve wealth

” You can’t stop things like Bitcoin.

It will be everywhere and the world will have to readjust.

World governments will have to readjust. “

John McAfee

Bitcoin will be everywhere and the world will have to readjust

” I think the fact that within the bitcoin universe an algorithm replaces the function of the government… is actually pretty cool. “

Al Gore

An algorithm replaces the function of government

“People have made fortunes off Bitcoin, some have lost money.

It is volatile, but people make money off of volatility too.”

Richard Branson

Some lost, some won with Bitcoin

” The ability to create something which is not duplicable in the digital world has enormous value…

Lot’s of people will build businesses on top of that. “

Eric Schmidt

Create something wich is not duplicable

“PayPal had these goals of creating a new currency.

We failed at that…

I think Bitcoin has succeeded on the level of a new currency, but the payment system is lacking.”

Peter Thiel

Bitcoin succeeded as a new currency

” As people move into Bitcoin for payments and receipts they stop using US Dollars, Euros and Chinese Yuan which in the long-term devalues these currencies. “

John McAfee

Bitcoin devalues $ € ¥

” Bitcoin is the currency of resistance…

If Satoshi had released Bitcoin 10 years. earlier, 9/11 would never have happened. “

Max Keiser

Bitcoin the currency of resistance

“At its core, bitcoin is a smart currency, designed by very forward-thinking engineers. “

Peter Diamandis

Bitcoin is a smart currency

“The internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government.

One thing that’s missing but that will soon be developed, is a reliable  e-cash.”

Milton Friedman

E-Cash

” Bitcoin is a technological tour de force. “

Bill Gates

Tour de force

” If you don’t believe it or don’t get it, I don’t have the time to try to convince you, sorry. “

Satoshi Nakamoto

Don’t have the time

“WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.”

Satoshi Nakamoto

WikiLeaks

” Lost coins only make everyone else’s coins worth slightly more.

Think of it as a donation to everyone.”

Satoshi Nakamoto

Lost Coins

” In a few decades when the reward gets too small, the transaction fee will become the main compensation for [mining] nodes.

I’m sure that in 20 years there will either be very large transaction volume or no volume.”

Satoshi Nakamoto

Transaction fee

” As computers get faster and the total computing power applied to creating bitcoins increases, the difficulty increases proportionally to keep the total new production constant.

Thus, it is known in advance how many new bitcoins will be created every year in the future.

Coins have to get initially distributed somehow, and a constant rate seems like the best formula.”

Satoshi Nakamoto

Coins distribution at a constant rate is the best formula

” Bitcoin is the beginning of something great: a currency without a government, something necessary and imperative. “

Nassim Taleb

Bitcoin a currency without a government

” Those who believe in Bitcoin also believe in cleverness. “

Arif Naseem

Believe in bitcoin believe in cleverness

” Bitcoin is the most stellar and most useful system of mutual trust ever devised. “

Arif Naseem

Bitcoin a system of mutual trust

Cryptocurrency is freedom, Banking is slavery. “

Arif Naseem

Cryptocurrency is freedom

” Our basic thesis for bitcoin is that it is better than gold. “

Tyler Winklevoss

Bitcoin better than gold

” I think the whole narrative of blockchain without bitcoin will amount to very little. “

Fred Ehrsam

Blockchain without bitcoin

” Every informed person needs to know about Bitcoin because it might be one of the world’s most important developments. “

Leon Louw

Bitcoin world’s most important developments

” Bitcoin is a very exciting development, it might lead to a world currency.

I think over the next decade it will grow to become one of the most important ways to pay for things and transfer assets. “

Kim Dotcom (CEO of MegaUpload)

 

Bitcoin might lead to a world currency

” Bitcoin may be the TCP/IP of money. “

Paul Buchheit (Creator of Gmail)

Bitcoin the TCP/IP of money

” We have elected to put our money and faith in a mathematical framework that is free of politics and human error. “

Tyler Winklevoss (Co-inventor of Facebook)

Mathematical framework free of politics and human error

” I really like Bitcoin.

I own Bitcoins.

It’s a store of value, a distributed ledger.

It’s a great place to put assets, especially in places like Argentina with 40 percent inflation, where $1 today is worth 60 cents in a year, and a government’s currency does not hold value.

It’s also a good investment vehicle if you have an appetite for risk.

But it won’t be a currency until volatility slows down. “

David Marcus (CEO of Paypal)

Bitcoin a store of value

” [Virtual Currencies] may hold long-term promise, particularly if the innovations promote a faster, more secure and more efficient payment system. “

Ben Bernanke (Chairman of the Federal Reserve)

Bitcoin may hold long-term promise

There are 3 eras of currency: Commodity based, politically based, and now, math based. “

Chris Dixon (Co-founder of Hunch now owned by Ebay, Co-founder of SiteAdvisor now owned by McAfee)

Math based currency

” Bitcoin is here to stay.

There would be a hacker uproar to anyone who attempted to take credit for the patent of cryptocurrency.

And I wouldn’t want to be on the receiving end of hacker fury. “

Adam Draper

Bitcoin is here to stay

” It’s money 2.0, a huge hugehuge  deal. “

Chamath Palihapitiya (Previous head of AOL instant messenger)

Money 2.0

” If there is one positive takeaway from the collapse of Mt.Gox, it is the willingness of a new generation of Bitcoin companies to work together to ensure the future of Bitcoin and the security of customer funds. “

Brian Armstrong (CEO of Coinbase)

Future of bitcoin

” Bitcoin seems to be a very promising idea.

I like the idea of basing security on the assumption that the CPU power of honest participants outweighs that of the attacker.

It is a very modern notion that exploits the power of the long tail. “

Hal Finney

Bitcoin a promising idea

” Bitcoin enables certain uses that are very unique.

I think it offers possibilities that no other currency allows.

For example the ability to spend a coin that only occurs when two separate parties agree to spend the coin; with a third party that couldn’t run away with the coin itself. “

Pieter Wuille

Bitcoin enables uses that are very unique

” At its core, bitcoin is a smart currency, designed by very forward-thinking engineers.

It eliminates the need for banks, gets rid of credit cardfees, currency exchange fees, money transfer fees, and reduces the need for lawyers in transitions… all good things. “

Peter Diamandis

Good things

” There is so much potential, … I am just waiting for it to be a billion dollar industry.” “ Wow, Silk Road actually works ” “

Charlie Shrem

Silk Road actually works

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Satoshi Nakamoto bitcoin quotes

The Times 03/Jan/2009
Wikileaks
Lost coins
Transaction fees
Anonymous vs. Pseudonymous
bitcoin’s convenience against credit cards
Scarce asset
Generate new bitcoin address
Not having bitcoin would be the net waste
Inflation vs. Deflation in bitcoin
Potential for a positive feedback loop
…gain a new territory of freedom…
E-currency based on cryptographic proof
Attractive to the libertarian viewpoint
Root problem with conventional currency

Vires In Numeris

Vires In Numeris

” It isn’t obvious that the world had to work this way.

But somehow the universe smiles on encryption.”

Julian Assange

Nobody yet knows for sure if the universe’s smile is genuine or not.

It is possible that our assumption of mathematical asymmetries is wrong and we find that P actually equals NP, or we find surprisingly quick solutions to specific problems which we currently assume to be hard.

If that should be the case, cryptography as we know it will cease to exist, and the implications would most likely change the world beyond recognition.

Vires in Numeris”

=

“Strength in Numbers”

epii

Vires in numeris is not only a catchy motto used by bitcoiners.

The realization that there is an unfathomable strength to be found in numbers is a profound one.

Understanding this, and the inversion of existing power balances which it enables changed my view of the world and the future which lies ahead of us.

One direct result of this is the fact that you don’t have to ask anyone for permission to participate in Bitcoin.

There is no page to sign up, no company in charge, no government agency to send application forms to.

Simply generate a large number and you are pretty much good to go.

The central authority of account creation is mathematics.

And God only knows who is in charge of that.

Elliptic curve examples (cc-by-sa Emmanuel Boutet)

Bitcoin is built upon our best understanding of reality.

While there are still many open problems in physics, computer science, and mathematics, we are pretty sure about some things.

That there is an asymmetry between finding solutions and validating the correctness of these solutions is one such thing.

That computation needs energy is another one.

In other words: finding a needle in a haystack is harder than checking if the pointy thing in your hand is indeed a needle or not.

And finding the needle takes work.

The vastness of Bitcoin’s address space is truly mind-boggling.

The number of private keys even more so. It is fascinating how much of our modern world boils down to the improbability of finding a needle in an unfathomably large haystack.

I am now more aware of this fact than ever.

Bitcoin taught me that there is strength in numbers.

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Speculative Attack

Speculative Attack

Pierre Rochard

July 4, 2014

Introduction

Bitcoin naysayers1 wring their hands over how Bitcoin can’t go mainstream. They gleefully worry that Bitcoin will not make it across the innovation chasm:

  • It’s too complicated
  • It doesn’t have the right governance structure2
  • The security is too hard to get right
  • Existing and upcoming fiat payment systems are or will be superior
  • It’s too volatile
  • The government will ban it
  • It won’t scale

The response from the Bitcoin community is to either endlessly argue over the above points3 or to find their inner Bitcoin Jonah4 with platitudes like:

  • Bitcoin the currency doesn’t matter, it’s the block chain technology that matters
  • It would be better if the block chain technology were used by banks and governments
  • Bitcoin should continue to be a niche system for the bit-curious, it’s just an experiment
  • Fiat and Bitcoin will live side-by-side, happily ever after
  • Bitcoin is the Myspace of ‘virtual currency’

The above sophisms are each worth their own article, if just to analyze the psycho-social archetypes of the relevant parrots.

A few of the criticisms mentioned earlier are correct, yet they are complete non sequiturs. Bitcoin will not be eagerly adopted by the mainstream, it will be forced upon them. Forced, as in “compelled by economic reality“.

People will be forced to pay with bitcoins, not because of ‘the technology’, but because no one will accept their worthless fiat for payments.

Contrary to popular belief, good money drives out bad. This “driving out” has started as a small fiat bleed.

It will rapidly escalate into Class IV hemorrhaging due to speculative attacks on weak fiat currencies. The end result will be hyperbitcoinization, i.e. “your money is no good here”.

Thiers’ Law: Good Money Drives Out Bad

Historically, it has been good, strong currencies that have driven out bad, weak currencies.

Over the span of several millennia, strong currencies have dominated and driven out weak in international competition.

The Persian daric, the Greek tetradrachma, the Macedonian stater, and the Roman denarius did not become dominant currencies of the ancient world because they were “bad” or “weak.”

The florinsducats and sequins of the Italian city-states did not become the “dollars of the Middle Ages” because they were bad coins; they were among the best coins ever made.

The pound sterling in the 19th century and the dollar in the 20th century did not become the dominant currencies of their time because they were weak.

Consistency, stability and high quality have been the attributes of great currencies that have won the competition for use as international money.

Robert Mundell“Uses and Abuses of Gresham’s Law in the History of Money”

Bitcoins are not just good money, they are the best money.5 

The Bitcoin network has the best monetary policy6 and the best brand.7 

We should therefore expect that bitcoins will drive out bad, weak currencies.8 

By what process will bitcoins become the dominant currency? Which fiat currencies will be the first to disappear?

These are the interesting questions of the day, as the necessary premises for these questions are already established truths.9

1. Fiat Bleed

Bitcoin’s current trend is to increase in value on an exponential trend line as new users arrive in waves.

The good money is “slowly” driving out the bad.

Two factors drive this:

  1. Reduction in information asymmetry – people are learning about Bitcoin and coming to the realization that bitcoins are indeed the best money. Possible overlapping motives:
    • ADHD – compulsive novelty fetichism induced by our post-war consumer culture and/or innate biological processes
    • FOMO – fear of missing out, see Regret Theory and ingroups, aka avarice and status-seeking
    • PISD – post-internet stress disorder, aka “disruption”, “next big thing”, “internet of money”
  2. Increasing liquidity – buying bitcoins is more convenient and has fewer fees attached today than a year ago. One can reasonably predict that this will also be the case a year from now. Why? Because selling bitcoins is a profitable and competitive business. Why? Because people want bitcoins, see above.

Due to group psychology, these newcomers arrive in waves.

The waves have a destabilizing effect on the exchange rate: speculators are unsure of the amplitude or wavelength of adoption, and amateurish punters let their excitement as well as subsequent fear overwhelm them.

Regardless, once the tide has pulled back and the weak hands have folded, the price is a few times higher than before the wave.

This ‘slow’ bleed is the current adoption model, and commentators generally assume one of the following:

  1. Slow bleed never occurred, it’s a fiction based on misleading data
  2. Slow bleed has stopped, the above motives only affect lolbertarians and angry teens
  3. The process will taper off now, as all the super tech-savvy people are already getting on board

My own prediction is that slow bleed has been accelerating and is only the first step.

The second step will be speculative attacks that use bitcoins as a platform.

The third and final step will be hyperbitcoinization.

2. Currency Crises

It might make sense just to get some in case it catches on.

If enough people think the same way, that becomes a self fulfilling prophecy.

” Once it gets bootstrapped, there are so many applications if you could effortlessly pay a few cents to a website as easily as dropping coins in a vending machine. “

Satoshi Nakamoto, 1/17/2009

Slow bleed leads to currency crisis as the expected value of bitcoins solidifies in people’s minds.

At first they are conservative, they invest “what they can afford to lose”.

After 12-18 months, their small stash of bitcoins has dramatically increased in value.

They see no reason why this long term trend should reverse: the fundamentals have improved and yet adoption remains low.

Their confidence increases. They buy more bitcoins. They rationalize: “well, it’s only [1-5%] of my investments”. They see the price crash a few times, due to bubbles bursting or just garden-variety panic sales – it entices them to buy more, “a bargain”. Bitcoin grows on the asset side of their balance sheet.

On the liability side of the Bitcoiner’s balance sheet there are mortgages, student loans, car loans, credit cards, etc.

Everyone admonishes people to not borrow in order to buy bitcoins.

The reality is that money is fungible: if you buy bitcoins instead of paying down your mortgage’s principal, you are a leveraged bitcoin investor.

Almost everyone is a leveraged bitcoin investor, because it makes economic sense (within reason).

The cost of borrowing (annualized interest rates ranging from 0% to 25%) is lower than the expected return of owning bitcoins.

How leveraged someone’s balance sheet is depends on the ratio between assets and liabilities.

The appeal of leveraging up increases if people believe that fiat-denominated liabilities are going to decrease in real terms, i.e. if they expect inflation to be greater than the interest rate they pay.

At that point it becomes a no-brainer to borrow the weak local currency using whatever collateral a bank will accept, invest in a strong foreign currency, and pay back the loan later with realized gains.

In this process, banks create more weak currency, amplifying the problem.

The effect of people, businesses, or financial institutions borrowing their local currency to buy bitcoins is that the bitcoin price in that currency would go up relative to other currencies.

To illustrate, let’s say that middle-class Indians trickle into bitcoin. Thousands of buyers turns into hundreds of thousands of buyers.

They borrow Indian Rupees using whatever unencumbered collateral they have – homes, businesses, gold jewelry, etc.

They use these Rupees to buy bitcoins. The price of bitcoins in Indian Rupees goes up, a premium develops relative to other currency pairs.

A bitcoin in India might be worth $600, while in the U.S. it trades at $500. Traders would buy bitcoins in the U.S. and sell them in India to net a $100 gain. They would then sell their Indian Rupees for dollars. This would weaken the Indian Rupee, causing import inflation and losses for foreign investors.

The Indian central bank would have to either increase interest rates to break the cycle, impose capital controls, or spend their foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Rupee’s exchange rate.

Only raising interest rates would be a sustainable solution, though it would throw the country into a recession.

There’s a huge problem with the Indian central bank raising interest rates: bitcoin’s historical return is ~500% per year.

Even if investors expected future return is 1/10th of that, the central bank would have to increase interest rates to unconscionable levels to break the attack.

The result is evident: everyone would flee the Rupee and adopt bitcoins, due to economic duress rather than technological enlightenment.

This example is purely illustrative, it could happen in a small country at first, or it could happen simultaneously around the world.

Who leverages their balance sheet and how is impossible to predict, and it will be impossible to stop when the dam cracks.

Which countries are most vulnerable to a currency crisis?

Business Insider provides a helpful list here.

Bitcoins will have to reach certain threshold of liquidity, indicated by a solid exchange in every financial center and a real money supply – i.e. market cap – of at least $50 billion, before they can be used as an instrument in a speculative attack. This will either coincide with or cause a currency crisis.

3. Hyperbitcoinization

A speculative attack that seems isolated to one or a few weak currencies, but causes the purchasing power of bitcoins to go up dramatically, will rapidly turn into a contagion.

For example, the Swiss will see the price of bitcoins go up ten fold, and then a hundred fold.

At the margin they will buy bitcoins simply because they want to speculate on their value, not due to an inherent problem with the Swiss Franc.

The reflexivity here entails that the reduction in demand for Swiss Francs would actually cause higher than expected inflation and thus an inherent problem with the Swiss Franc.

The feedback loop between fiat inflation and bitcoin deflation will throw the world into full hyperbitcoinization, explained by Daniel here.

Conclusion

Bitcoin will become mainstream.

The Bitcoin skeptics don’t understand this due to their biases and lack of financial knowledge.

First, they are in as strong an echo chamber as Bitcoin skeptics.10 

They rabidly search for evidence that confirms their view of Bitcoin.

Second, they misunderstand how strong currencies like bitcoin overtake weak currencies like the dollar: it is through speculative attacks and currency crises caused by investors, not through the careful evaluation of tech journalists and ‘mainstream consumers’.

To honor these soon to be extinct skeptics, the Nakamoto Institute has launched A Tribute to Bold Assertions.


  1. No, seriously, there are people on the Internet spending a non-trivial amount of time writing about a currency they think is going to fail yet continues to succeed beyond anyone’s expectations. I get schadenfreude from their lack of schadenfreude. Granted, a few of them are being paid to write controversial click bait and/or just concern trolling – both activities that I respect and understand.
  2. This is generally stated by people who are in the ‘out-group’ and fantasize about being in the ‘in-group’ through politics/pedigree rather than economic/meritocratic processes. Demographically, they probably overlap with fans of The Secret. Economically, they are without exception bezzlers
  3. Bitcoin has entered its Eternal September, where every person new to Bitcoin thinks they have a unique understanding of Bitcoin and everyone ought to hear about it. There’s an endless flood of newbies ‘concerned’ about such and such ‘problem’ with Bitcoin. The Bitcoin community does these arrivistes a real disservice by taking them seriously instead of just telling them ‘read more’. 
  4. The opposite of Bitcoin Jesus. Bitcoin Jonah is a defeatist, self-sabotaging, and timid ‘man’ who is on a permanent quest to confirm Bitcoin’s weakness. 
  5. Bitcoin is the Best Unit of Account by Daniel Krawisz 
  6. The Bitcoin Central Bank’s Perfect Monetary Policy by Pierre Rochard 
  7. Bitcoin Has No Image Problem by Daniel Krawisz 
  8. Hyperbitcoinization by Daniel Krawisz
  9. If you disagree then either you have not been learning or you have not been engaging in the debate, go back to square one. 
  10. ‘I live in a rather special world. I only know one person who voted for Nixon. Where they are I don’t know. They’re outside my ken. But sometimes when I’m in a theater I can feel them.’ – Pauline Kael

Source:

https://nakamotoinstitute.org/mempool/speculative-attack/

What is Hashrate ?

Hashrate Bitcoin network h/s
Bitcoin Hash Rate

Hashrate (Hash per secondh/s) is an SI-derived unit representing the number of double SHA-256 computations performed in one second in the bitcoin network for cryptocurrency mining.

Hashrate is also called as hashing power. It is usually symbolized as h/s (with an appropriate SI prefix).

What is hashing power or hash rate?

The hash rate is the primary measure of a Bitcoin miner‘s performance.

In 2014, a miner’s performance was generally measured in Ghash/s, or billions of hashes per second.

The hash/second unit is also part of a common measure of a Bitcoin miner’s electric efficiency in the term watts /Ghash/s, denoted as W/Ghash/s. As 1 watt is equal to 1 joule/s, this measure can also be expressed as J/Ghash, or joules per 1 billion hashes.

Bitcoin network hash rate

Bitcoin network hashrate chart

The hash/s is also used in calculations of the Bitcoin network’s overall hash rate. Because each miner or mining pool only relays a solved block to the network, the overall hash rate of the network is calculated based on the time between blocks.

While not an accurate measure of network hash rate at any given instance in time, measurements over longer periods can be considered indicative and similar calculations are used in Bitcoin’s difficulty  adjustment.

In January 2015, the network hash rate was around 300 Phash/s, or 300 quadrillion hashes per second.

If you compare a bitcoin mining device to one that is designed to mine, for example, Ethereum, you will notice a very large apparent difference in hash rates.

This is because there are many different algorithms that cryptocurrencies use. They all require different amounts of memory and computing power in order to be mined.

To put it simply, bitcoin and its SHA256 algorithm is considered by today standards to be relatively easy to compute. As a result, a mining device that is still relevant today would need to produce hashes in the terahash range and up.

If we were to compare this to Ethereum, you’ll find that most modern Ethereum mining devices (typically GPU’s) operate in the megahash range.

At first glance, you may think that the bitcoin mining device is significantly more powerful or more productive.

While it’s true that it produces more hashes (of the SHA256 variety), this is because bitcoin hashes are easier to produce computationally.

As a consequence, the network difficulty is significantly higher for bitcoin.

To make things even more confusing, some cryptocurrencies intentionally chose algorithms that can only be mined using a basic CPU.

As a result, mining devices for this network that can produce hundreds of hashes per second are considered to be high and very competitive.

So what does all this mean?

Basically, it means that looking at the hash rate alone doesn’t necessarily tell you the effectiveness of the miner.

You also need to understand the network difficulty, and what the norm is for most mining devices for that particular cryptocurrency.

How can I calculate how many hashes I generate per second?

Your problem breaks down nicely into 3 separate tasks:

  • Sharing a single count variable across threads
  • Benchmarking thread completion time
  • Calculating hashes p/sec
  • Sharing a single count variable across threads

Now that we know that not all hashes are the same we need to know how to calculate the estimated profitability of a miner based on its hash rate.

For this, will need to use a mining profitability calculators, they are available in the Internet.

public static class GlobalCounter

{
public static int Value { get; private set; }
   public static void Increment()
{
Value = GetNextValue(Value);
}
   private static int GetNextValue(int curValue)
{
return Interlocked.Increment(ref curValue);
}
   public static void Reset()
{
Value = 0;
}
}

Before you spin off the threads call GlobalCounter.

Reset and then in each thread (after each successful hash) you would call GlobalCounter.

Increment – using Interlocked.X performs atomic operations of Value in a thread-safe manner, it’s also much faster than lock.

Benchmarking thread completion time

var sw = Stopwatch.StartNew();
Parallel.ForEach(someCollection, someValue =>
{
// generate hash
GlobalCounter.Increment();
});
sw.Stop();
Parallel.ForEach will block until all threads have finished

Calculating hashes per second

...
sw.Stop();
var hashesPerSecond = GlobalCounter.Value / sw.Elapsed.Seconds;

How is the hash rate measured?

Hash rate is a unit measured in hashes per second or h/s and here are some usual denominations used to refer it.

Hash rate denominations:

  • 1 kH/s is 1,000 (one thousand) hashes per second;
  • 1 MH/s is 1,000,000 (one million) hashes per second;
  • 1 GH/s is 1,000,000,000 (one billion) hashes per second;
  • 1 TH/s is 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) hashes per second;
  • 1 PH/s is 1,000,000,000,000,000 (one quadrillion) hashes per second;
  • 1 EH/s is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (one quintillion) hashes per second.

Common Hash rate Conversions:

  • 1 MH/s = 1,000 kH/s;
  • 1 GH/s = 1,000 MH/s = 1,000,000 kH/s;
  • 1 TH/s = 1,000 GH/s = 1,000,000 MH/s = 1,000,000,000 kH/s.

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