Sapere Aude



Etymology

It is from the epithet of a parable, explaining that a fool waits for the stream to stop before crossing, while a wise man forgoes comfort and crosses anyway.

The original use seems to be in Epistle II  of  Horace‘s Epistularum liber primus:

“Dimidium facti qui coepit habet: sapere aude” (“He who has begun is half done: dare to know!”).


Phrase

sapere audē

  1. Have the courage to think for yourself
  2. Have courage to use your own reason“, in the context of committing to tasks that need to be embarked upon, however unpleasant or awkward.
  3. “Dare to be wise”, the motto of the Enlightenment.

Usage notes

Kant answers the question in the first sentence of the essay: “Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity (Unmündigkeit).”

He argues that the immaturity is self-inflicted not from a lack of understanding, but from the lack of courage to use one’s reason, intellect, and wisdom without the guidance of another.

Kant argued that using one’s reason is considered dangerous by most men and all women.

He exclaims that the motto of the Enlightenment is “Sapere aude“! – Dare to be wise!



Source:

https://wikipedia.org/




Knowledge is…


Knowledge is Power !!!


WRONG !!!

Knowledge is Power
When Applied !!!


Apollo BTC – A Bitcoin ASIC Miner and Desktop Class Computer running a Full Node

Introducing the FutureBit Apollo BTC

Six CPU Cores. 44 ASIC Cores. 1TB NVMe Based SSD Drive. Quiet. Less than 200 Watts of Power. Made in the USA. This is what the Future of Bitcoin looks like. 

FutureBit Apollo BTC is the world’s first vertically integrated platform bringing the full power of Bitcoin and it’s mining infrastructure in a small, quiet, easy to use desktop device designed for everyday people. 

We have iterated and learned much from our first Apollo product. We realized early on that we focused too much on the mining aspect, and not enough on the software, applications, and services that run Bitcoin. Too many of these services have moved to online centralized websites, and many users have given up on running the core software that powers Bitcoin. 

This must change, as Bitcoin will not continue to be the free, un-censorable, decentralized system it is today if only a few control the mining that powers it, and the nodes that control it. 

At the heart of the new Apollo BTC product is a revamped SBC (Single Board Computer), that is as powerful as any consumer grade desktop system and can run almost any Bitcoin Application natively on the device 24/7. Take it out of the Box, plug it in, power it on, and you are already running a full Bitcoin node without needing to do anything.

Install a wallet of your choice, use any hardware wallet, run BTCPayServer, run a block explorer, run a Lightning Node. All of this is possible with our six core ARM based CPU with 4GB of RAM, and a 1TB NVMe drive that can easily store a FULL non pruned Bitcoin Node. It can power through a Full Node Sync in under 48 hours, which is a record for a device of its class! This is almost an order of magnitude faster than any Raspberry Pi 4 based Node. 

On top of this we have taken our 6 years of experience building ASIC mining devices, and engineered the only American Made TeraHash range Bitcoin mining device that can be silent on your desk, mine Bitcoin in the background 24/7, and only use the power of one light bulb to do it. 

We did this with our optimized PCB design that has carefully placed all 44 hash cores underneath our custom cold-forged aluminum induction heatsink, which draws up to 200 Watts of heat away from the device with our new nearly silent 25mm fan. This results in the Apollo BTC in Turbo Mode being just as quiet as the Apollo LTC in Eco Mode!

Like our previous products, we are super proud that we can continue manufacturing the Apollo BTC in the USA, and are now the only USA based company that delivers Bitcoin ASIC products with a supply chain whole owned in the western hemisphere (no more reliance on Chinese based ASICS, and their willingness to only sell to large farms and the highest bidder). 

OPTIONS

Full Apollo Package: This is our Full Package option that comes with everything you need in the box. The Apollo BTC Unit with our latest controller built in, and our 200W Power supply with power cable. 

Full Apollo Package NO Power Supply: We are also offering the Full Package with no power supply for people that want the plug-n-play experience but have spare 12v ATX power supply. 

Standard: This option is ONLY the Apollo ASIC Miner, with no controller or power supply. Our new hashboard has a micro USB port, and can be used as a USB device. The Full Apollo Node can control multiple standard units through its USB ports. We wanted to give our customers an option to expand their hash power in a cost effective way. If you already have a Raspberry Pi, or Linux/Windows Desktop Computer and a power supply with two PCIE power ports you can also control our Standard unit in this way with our stand alone miner software (please note this setup will be for more advanced users, and the software will be command line based on launch). 

Standard + Power Supply: Same as our Standard unit above, but comes with our 200W Power supply. This is a plug and play solution if you already have a Full Apollo Package. Take it out of the box, plug in the power supply, plug in the micro USB cable to the back of your Full Apollo BTC and it will automatically recognize the second hashboard and start mining! 

  • Compact All-In-One Desktop Bitcoin System (4x6x4in) that mines Bitcoin and any SHA256 based crypto (Bitcoin Cash etc). 
  • Powerful 6 ARM Core CPU with 4GB of LPDDR4 RAM and 1TB NVMe SSD (NOT included in the Standard or Standard + package). 
  • Comes Pre-Installed with a Bitcoin node, and you can install almost any Bitcoin Application
  • Very wide range of operation modes with preset ECO (quiet) mode, BALANCED, and TURBO mode. 
  • 2-3.8 TH/s of SHA256 performance per miner (+/- 5%)
  • 125 Watts in ECO mode, and 200 Watts in TURBO * +/- 10%
  • Can be used as a full Desktop computer with a monitor keyboard and mouse (not included), or through our Web UI
  • Connect almost any peripheral with our USB 3.0 ports, USB C port, HDMI, AC Wifi, and Bluetooth 
  • Clocks and Power is fully customizable by user with easy to use interface
  • Hashboard now monitors both voltage and power draw for accurate measurements*
  • Custom designed cold forged hexagonal pin heatsink with leading thermal performance for the quietest ASIC miner in operation!
  • 1k-5k RPM Quiet Dual Ball Bearing Fan with automatic thermal management with onboard temperature sensor
  • Controlled via local connection on a web browser similar to antminers. You can simply set it up via smartphone browser. No crazy driver installs, hard to use miner software or scripts needed.
  • Two Six Pin PCIE power connectors for wide-range of power draw
  • Custom Designed all Aluminum case
  • Ships with our own custom built 200W 94% efficient PSU and is ready to run out of the box! (Does NOT come with Standard package). 

 Requirements:

  • Router with an Ethernet cable for initial setup OR Monitor with keyboard and mouse
  • At least a 250 watt 12v power supply with two 6 Pin PCIE connector is required (unless you order our packages that come with our power supply). This is the same connector used by all modern GPUs. Please note even standard units NEED a power supply, they cant be powered through the USB port on the full package unit. 

As I am the owner of two of these beauties, that I have on my office as you saw in the photo above, I took the liberty to make Free-Publicity for the FutureBit Apollo Btc Miner.


Kudos to jstefanop


Source:

https://www.futurebit.io/





With 💚

Bitcoin surges after accidentally released Treasury statement


Bitcoin surges after accidentally released Treasury statement



Prices of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies have soared following the apparent accidental release of a U.S. Treasury statement on Biden’s expected executive order on digital assets.

The premature statement by Treasury Secretary Yellen, which was dated March 9, has since been removed.

“President Biden’s historic executive order calls for a coordinated and comprehensive approach to digital asset policy.  This approach will support responsible innovation that could result in substantial benefits for the nation, consumers, and businesses. 

It will also address risks related to illicit finance, protecting consumers and investors, and preventing threats to the financial system and broader economy.”

Quote from the now deleted statement

At the time of writing, Bitcoin is up nearly 8% in the last 24 hours.

Biden’s executive order aims to regulate the crypto market while also reaping the benefits of digital currencies.

So far, like most countries in the world, the US has tended to react to developments and has limited itself to pointing to a political-economic approach that is yet to be developed.


Statement by Secretary of the Treasury Janet L. Yellen on President Biden’s Executive Order on Digital Assets


March 9, 2022

WASHINGTON –  U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Janet L. Yellen released the following statement on President Biden’s executive order on digital assets. 

“President Biden’s historic executive order calls for a coordinated and comprehensive approach to digital asset policy.  This approach will support responsible innovation that could result in substantial benefits for the nation, consumers, and businesses.  It will also address risks related to illicit finance, protecting consumers and investors, and preventing threats to the financial system and broader economy.

Under the executive order, Treasury will partner with interagency colleagues to produce a report on the future of money and payment systems. We’ll also convene the Financial Stability Oversight Council to evaluate the potential financial stability risks of digital assets and assess whether appropriate safeguards are in place. And, because the questions raised by digital assets often have important cross-border dimensions, we’ll work with our international partners to promote robust standards and a level playing field.

This work will complement ongoing efforts by Treasury. Already, the Department has worked with the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, the FDIC, and OCC to study one particular kind of digital asset – stablecoins– and to make recommendations. Under the executive order, Treasury and interagency partners will build upon the recently published National Risk Assessments, which identify key illicit financing risks associated with digital assets. 

As we take on this important work, we’ll be guided by consumer and investor protection groups, market participants, and other leading experts.  Treasury will work to promote a fairer, more inclusive, and more efficient financial system, while building on our ongoing work to counter illicit finance, and prevent risks to financial stability and national security.”


Sources:

https://forbes.com/

https://disclose.tv/

https://bloomberg.com/

https://web.archive.org/web/20220309014601/https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/jy0643




With 💚

P.O.W In Human History


Proof Of Work

in the

History of Humankind


Great Pyramid of Giza (a.k.a)
Pyramid of Khu
Egypt

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the  pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex  bordering present-day Giza  in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.

Egyptologists conclude that the pyramid was built as a tomb for the Fourth Dynasty  Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and estimate that it was built in the 26th century BC during a period of around 27 years.

Initially standing at 146.5 metres (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for more than 3,800 years.

Over time, most of the smooth white limestone casing was removed, which lowered the pyramid’s height to the present 138.5 metres (454.4 ft).

What is seen today is the underlying core structure. The base was measured to be about 230.3 metres (755.6 ft) square, giving a volume of roughly 2.6 million cubic metres (92 million cubic feet), which includes an internal hillock.

The dimensions of the pyramid were 280 royal cubits (146.7 m; 481.4 ft) high, a base length of 440 cubits (230.6 m; 756.4 ft), with a seked of 5+1/2 palms (a slope of 51°50’40”).

The Great Pyramid was built by quarrying an estimated 2.3 million large blocks weighing 6 million tonnes total.

The majority of stones are not uniform in size or shape and are only roughly dressed.The outside layers were bound together by mortar.

Primarily local limestone from the Giza Plateau was used. Other blocks were imported by boat down the Nile: White limestone from Tura for the casing, and granite blocks from Aswan, weighing up to 80 tonnes, for the King’s Chamber structure.

There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest was cut into the bedrock, upon which the pyramid was built, but remained unfinished. The so-called Queen’s Chamber and King’s Chamber, that contains a granite sarcophagus, are higher up, within the pyramid structure. Khufu’s vizier, Hemiunu (also called Hemon), is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid.

Many varying scientific and alternative hypotheses attempt to explain the exact construction techniques.

The funerary complex around the pyramid consisted of two mortuary temples  connected by a causeway (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), tombs for the immediate family and court of Khufu, including three smaller pyramids for Khufu’s wives, an even smaller “satellite pyramid” and five buried solar barges.


Flavian Amphitheatre
a.k.a Colloseum
Rome – Italy

The Colosseum (Colosseo[kolosˈsɛːo]) is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, just east of the Roman Forum.

It is the largest ancient amphitheatre ever built, and is still the largest standing amphitheatre in the world today, despite its age.

Construction began under the emperor Vespasian (r. 69–79 AD) in 72 and was completed in 80 AD under his successor and heir, Titus (r. 79–81).

Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (r. 81–96).

The three emperors that were patrons of the work are known as the Flavian dynasty, and the amphitheatre was named the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio[aɱfiteˈaːtro ˈflaːvjo]) by later classicists and  archaeologists for its association with their family name (Flavius).

The Colosseum is built of travertine limestone, tuff (volcanic rock), and brick-faced concrete.

The Colosseum could hold an estimated 50,000 to 80,000 spectators at various points in its history  having an average audience of some 65,000; it was used for gladiatorial  contests and  public spectacles including  animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Roman mythology, and briefly mock sea battles.

The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era.

It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

Although substantially ruined because of earthquakes and stone-robbers (for spolia), the Colosseum is still an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and was listed as one of the New 7 Wonders of the World.

It is one of Rome’s most popular tourist attractions and also has links to the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday  the Pope leads a torchlit “Way of the Cross” procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.

The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.


The Ming dynasty
Great Wall
at Jinshanling

The Great Wall of China (traditional Chinese: 萬里長城; simplified Chinese: 万里长城; pinyinWànlǐ Chángchéng) is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

Several walls were built from as early as the 7th century BC,with selective stretches later joined together by Qin Shi Huang  (220–206 BC), the first emperor of China.

Little of the Qin wall remains. Later on, many successive dynasties built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The best-known sections of the wall were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration.

Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watchtowers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Tao River (Taohe) in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of the Mongolian steppe; spanning 21,196.18 km (13,170.70 mi) in total.

Today, the defensive system of the Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.


As history has left behind, monumental architectural constructions that we can admire and reamain in awe as we look at them, after thousands of years since the first stone was put, in today’s world our digital PoW can be seen and admired the same as the Great Wall of China or the Piramid of Giza !!!

Wich brings us to the question, what is Free talking about ?!?


Long Live the CypherPunks

CypherPunks Write Code

Genesis

Bitcoin Genesis Block
Mined 03 January 2009

The Times
January 3, 2009

Bitcoin – Proof Of Work


Bitcoin-type Proof Of Work


In 2009, the Bitcoin network went online. Bitcoin is a proof-of-work digital currency that, like Finney’s RPoW, is also based on the Hashcash PoW.

But in Bitcoin, double-spend protection is provided by a decentralized P2P protocol for tracking transfers of coins, rather than the hardware trusted computing function used by RPoW.

Bitcoin has better trustworthiness because it is protected by computation. Bitcoins are “mined” using the Hashcash proof-of-work function by individual miners and verified by the decentralized nodes in the P2P bitcoin network.

The difficulty is periodically adjusted to keep the block time around a target time.

Since the creation of Bitcoin, proof-of-work has been the predominant design of peer-to-peer cryptocurrency. Studies have estimated the total energy consumption of cryptocurrency mining.

The PoW mechanism requires a vast amount of computing resources, which consume a significant amount of electricity. Recent estimates from the University of Cambridge put Bitcoin’s energy consumption as equal to that of Switzerland.

History modification

Each block that is added to the blockchain, starting with the block containing a given transaction, is called a confirmation of that transaction.

Ideally, merchants and services that receive payment in the cryptocurrency should wait for at least one confirmation to be distributed over the network, before assuming that the payment was done.

The more confirmations that the merchant waits for, the more difficult it is for an attacker to successfully reverse the transaction in a blockchain—unless the attacker controls more than half the total network power, in which case it is called a 51% attack.

2ASICs and mining pools

Within the Bitcoin community there are groups working together in mining pools.

Some miners use application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for PoW. This trend toward mining pools and specialized ASICs has made mining some cryptocurrencies economically infeasible for most players without access to the latest ASICs, nearby sources of inexpensive energy, or other special advantages.

Some PoWs claim to be ASIC-resistant,  i.e. to limit the efficiency gain that an ASIC can have over commodity hardware, like a GPU, to be well under an order of magnitude.

ASIC resistance has the advantage of keeping mining economically feasible on commodity hardware, but also contributes to the corresponding risk that an attacker can briefly rent access to a large amount of unspecialized commodity processing power to launch a 51% attack against a cryptocurrency.


Plant the Seed
The choice is Yours

Choose Wisely
The Choice is Yours




With 💚


Bitcoin – Power to the People by BitHouse-Co

Redbubble Shop BitHouse

For the first time in human history there is at the disposal of the masses a tool that eliminates the middlemen and takes trust from the hands of humans and beautifully makes it a mathematics code that cannot be breaken, hacked or tricked…

https://www.redbubble.com/shop/ap/99847715?asc=u

Made with 💚 by Free Spirit

✌ & 💚

BitHouse with 💚

Crypto Terminology

Crypto Terminology


Glossary of Terms


Bags

Cryptoassets being held, generally as longer-term plays; sometimes used self-deprecatingly for soft or losing positions one should close, but can’t for whatever reason. “Too bad none of my alt bags saw the moon that I did today. #cryptoeclipse”

Bitcoin Maximalists

The truest believers in bitcoin’s original mission and design, often paired with a disdain for altcoins.

Block

Blocks are found in the Bitcoin block chain. Blocks connect all transactions together.

Transactions are combined into single blocks and are verified every ten minutes through mining.

Each subsequent block strengthens the verification of the previous blocks, making it impossible to double spend bitcoin transactions (see double spend below).

BIP

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal or BIP, is a technical design document providing information to the bitcoin community, or describing a new feature for bitcoin or its processes or environment which affect the Bitcoin protocol.

New features, suggestions, and design changes to the protocol should be submitted as a BIP.

The BIP author is responsible for building consensus within the community and documenting dissenting opinions.

Black Swans

A black swan is an event or occurrence that deviates beyond what is normally expected of a situation and is extremely difficult to predict.

Black swan events are typically random and unexpected.

The term was popularized by Nassim Nicholas Taleb, a finance professor, writer, and former Wall Street trader.

Block Chain

The Bitcoin block chain is a public record of all Bitcoin transactions. You might also hear the term used as a “public ledger”.

The block chain shows every single record of bitcoin transactions in order, dating back to the very first one.

The entire block chain can be downloaded and openly reviewed by anyone, or you can use a block explorer to review the block chain online.

Block Height

The block height is just the number of blocks connected together in the block chain. Height 0 for example refers to the very first block, called the “genesis block”.

Block Reward

When a block is successfully mined on the bitcoin network, there is a block reward that helps incentivize miners to secure the network.

The block reward is part of a “coinbase” transaction which may also include transaction fees.

The block rewards halves roughly every four years; see also “halving”.

BTFD | #BTFD

“Buy the Fucking Dip” Advice to other traders to pick up a coin that’s presumably hit its bottom.

“$GNT Golem making moves. Underpriced @ 7.5K If U are buying GNT under 10K still a good price 3 X LETS GO $ETH #CRYPTO #trading #BTFD”

Change

Let’s say you are spending $9.90 in your local supermarket, and you give the cashier $10.00. You will get back .10 cents in change.

The same logic applies to bitcoin transactions.

Bitcoin transactions are made up of inputs and outputs.

When you send bitcoins, you can only send them in a whole “output”.

The change is then sent back to the sender.

Cold Storage

The term cold storage is a general term for different ways of securing cryptocurrency offline (disconnected from the internet).

This would be the opposite of a hot wallet or hosted wallet, which is connected to the web for day-to-day transactions.

The purpose of using cold storage is to minimize the chances of your bitcoins being stolen from a malicious hacker and is commonly used for larger sums of bitcoins.

Cold Wallet and Hot Wallet

Cold storage is an offline wallet provided for storing cryptocurrency.

With cold storage, the digital wallet is stored on a platform that is not connected to the internet, thereby, protecting the wallet from unauthorized access, cyber hacks, and other vulnerabilities that a system connected to the internet is susceptible to.

Confirmation

A confirmation means that the bitcoin transaction has been verified by the network, through the process known as mining.

Once a transaction is confirmed, it cannot be reversed or double spent.

Transactions are included in blocks.

Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency is the broad name for digital currencies that use blockchain technology to work on a peer-to-peer basis.

Cryptocurrencies don’t need a bank to carry out transactions between individuals.

The nature of the blockchain means that individuals can transact with each other, even if they don’t trust each other.

The cryptocurrency network keeps track of all the transactions and ensures that no one tries to renege on a transaction.

Cryptocurrency 2.0

Also known as a decentralized app,(Dapp) a cryptocurrency 2.0 project uses the blockchain for something other than simply creating and sending money.

They typically involve decentralized versions of online services that were previously operated by a trusted third party.

Cryptography

Cryptography is used in multiple places to provide security for the Bitcoin network.

Cryptography, which is essentially mathematical and computer science algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt information, is used in bitcoin addresses, hash functions, and the block chain.

Cypherpunk

1. A person with an interest in encryption and privacy, especially one who uses encrypted email.

2. Cypherpunk, a term that appeared in Eric Hughes’ “A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto” in 1993, combines the ideas of cyberpunk, the spirit of individualism in cyberspace, with the use of strong  encryption ( ciphertext is encrypted text) to preserve privacy.

Cypherpunk advocates believe that the use of strong encryption algorithms will enable individuals to have safely private transactions.

They oppose any kind of government regulation of cryptography.

They admit the likelihood that criminals and terrorists will exploit the use of strong encryption systems, but accept the risk as the price to be paid for the individual’s right to privacy.

Dark Web

The part of the World Wide Web that is only accessible by means of special software, allowing users and website operators to remain anonymous or untraceable.

The Dark Web poses new and formidable challenges for law enforcement agencies around the world.

Decentralized

Having a decentralized bitcoin network is a critical aspect.

The network is “decentralized”, meaning that it’s void of a centralized company or entity that governs the network.

Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer protocol, where all users within the network work and communicate directly with each other, instead of having their funds handled by a middleman, such as a bank or credit card company.

Difficulty

Difficulty is directly related to Bitcoin mining (see mining below), and how hard it is to verify blocks in the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoin adjusts the mining difficulty of verifying blocks every 2016 blocks.

Difficulty is automatically adjusted to keep block verification times at ten minutes.

Dogecoin

Dogecoin is an altcoin that first started as a joke in late 2013. Dogecoin, which features a Japanese fighting dog as its mascot, gained a broad international following and quickly grew to have a multi-million dollar market capitalization.

Double Spend

If someone tries to send a bitcoin transaction to two different recipients at the same time, this is double spending. Once a bitcoin transaction is confirmed, it makes it nearly impossible to double spend it. The more confirmations that a transaction has, the harder it is to double spend the bitcoins.

DYOR | #DYOR

“Do Your Own Research.” The trader’s caveat that advice shouldn’t be taken at face value.

“$BCY has an appealing risk/reward here. Could take a few months to play out, however, and will require patience. #DYOR”

Exit Scam

Traditionally a term for darknet markets and vendors that, after building up a good reputation, accumulate bitcoins and disappear; exit scams are also feared by ICO participants who worry that, once they’ve raised hundreds of millions in hard-to-trace money, the developers will take the money and run.

Fiat

Government-issued money.

Full Node

A full node is when you download the entire block chain using a bitcoin client, and you relay, validate, and secure the data within the block chain.

The data is bitcoin transactions and blocks, which is validated across the entire network of users.

FOMO | #FOMO

“Fear of Missing Out.” When a coin starts to moon, dumb money rushes in. “$LGD on a TEAR right now!!! It has major highs right now! Some major #FOMO going on!!! Sell while it’s high. It WILL drop before fight!!!”

FUD

“Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt.”

Another non-crypto term that describes attempts to scare weak-handed coin-holders into selling their positions, often with rumors of exit scams or hacks; the cheap, dumped coins are then picked up by the FUD-ers.

Fungibility

Fungibility is a good or asset’s interchangeability with other individual goods or assets of the same type.

Assets possessing this fungibility property simplify the exchange and trade processes, as interchangeability assumes everyone values all goods of that class the same.

HODL

HOLD ON FOR DEAR LIFE!

The intentionally misspelled word hodl has its roots in a December 2013 post on the Bitcoin Talk forum, “I AM HODLING”; when the author, GameKyuubi, couldn’t be bothered to fix his typo, the community instantly turned it into a verb: to hodl.


Along with other terms, hodl is an effective litmus test for sussing out newcomers, carpetbaggers, and tourists.

Halving

Bitcoins have a finite supply, which makes them scarce.

The total amount that will ever be issued is 21 million.

The number of bitcoins generated per block is decreased 50% every 210,000 blocks,roughtly four years.

This is called “halving.”

The final halving will take place in the year 2140.

Hash

A cryptographic hash is a mathematical function that takes a file and produces a relative shortcode that can be used to identify that file.

A hash has a couple of key properties:

• It is unique. 

Only a particular file can produce a particular hash, and two different files will never produce the same hash.

It cannot be reversed.

You can’t work out what a file was by looking at its hash.

Hashing is used to prove that a set of data has not been tampered with.

It is what makes bitcoin mining possible.

Hash Rate

The hash rate is how the Bitcoin mining network processing power is measured.

In order for miners to confirm transactions and secure the block chain, the hardware they use must perform intensive computational operations which is output in hashes per second.

Hash Converter

Use an online hash converter, such as https://hash.online-convert.com and enter the text you want to convert.

Then, try changing just a letter in the input text to see how the resulting hash varies significantly

Hard Fork

A hard fork is when a single cryptocurrency splits in two.

It occurs when a cryptocurrency’s existing code is changed, resulting in both an old and new version.

Meanwhile a soft fork is essentially the same thing, but the idea is that only one blockchain (and thus one coin) will remain valid as users adopt the update.

So both fork types create a split, but a hard fork is meant to create two blockchain/coins and a soft fork is meant to result in one.

Segwit was a soft fork, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Gold, and Segwit2x are all hard forks.

Immutability

In object-oriented and functional programming, an immutable object (unchangeable object) is an object whose state cannot be modified after it is created.

This is in contrast to a mutable object (changeable object), which can be modified after it is created.

Lambo | #Lambo

A running joke among traders, you’re cryptorich when you can buy a Lamborghini; though absurd, it’s not unheard of — when Alexandre Cazes, the suspected founder of a major darknet marketplace, was found hanged in his Bangkok jail cell, Thai media reported that he owned four Lamborghinis.

Mining

Bitcoin mining is the process of using computer hardware to do mathematical calculations for the Bitcoin network in order to confirm transactions.

Miners collect transaction fees for the transactions they confirm and are awarded bitcoins for each block they verify.

Moon | #Moon

A rapid price increase.

Peer-to-Peer

Typically, online applications are provided by a central party that organizes all the transactions.

Your bank runs its own computers, and all the customers log into the bank’s computer to handle their transactions.

If Bob wants to send money to Alice, he asks the bank to do it, and the bank controls everything.

In a peer-to-peer arrangement, technology cuts out the middleman, meaning that people deal directly with each other.

Bob would send the money directly to Alice, and there wouldn’t be any bank involved at all.

Pool

As part of bitcoin mining, mining “pools” are a network of miners that work together to mine a block, then split the block reward among the pool miners.

Mining pools are a good way for miners to combine their resources to increase the probability of mining a block, and also contribute to the overall health and decentralization of the bitcoin network.

Private Key

A private key is a string of data that shows you have access to bitcoins in a specific wallet.

Think of a private key like a password; private keys must never be revealed to anyone but you, as they allow you to spend the bitcoins from your bitcoin wallet through a cryptographic signature.

Proof of Work

Proof of work refers to the hash of a block header (blocks of bitcoin transactions).

A block is considered valid only if its hash is lower than the current target.

Each block refers to a previous block adding to previous proofs of work, which forms a chain of blocks, known as a block chain.

Once a chain is formed, it confirms all previous Bitcoin transactions and secures the network.

Pump

A rapid price increase believed to be the result of market manipulation, a.k.a. pump and dump.

Public Address

A public bitcoin address is cryptographic hash of a public key.

A public address typically starts with the number “1.”

Think of a public address like an email address.

It can be published anywhere and bitcoins can be sent to it, just like an email can be sent to an email address.

Private Key

A private key is a string of data that shows you have access to bitcoins in a specific wallet.

Think of a private key like a password; private keys must never be revealed to anyone but you, as they allow you to spend the bitcoins from your bitcoin wallet through a cryptographic signature.

Rekt | #Rekt

Meaning “wrecked”.

“I never sell because of #FUD, and I never buy because of #FOMO.

That’s the easiest way to get #Rekt

Sats

Satoshis, currently the smallest unit of a single bitcoin, useful for tracking coin prices. “At the rate $XRP’s moving, I wouldn’t be surprised if it hits 10K sats by the end of the day.”

Security Tokens

A security token (sometimes called an authentication token) is a small hardware device that the owner carries to authorize access to a network service.

The device may be in the form of a smart card or may be embedded in a commonly used object such as a key fob.

Shitcoins

Pejorative term for altcoins, especially low-cap coins, often affectionately used by shitcoin hodlers.

SEGWIT

SegWit is the process by which the block size limit on a blockchain is increased by removing signature data from Bitcoin transactions.

When certain parts of a transaction are removed, this frees up space or capacity to add more transactions to the chain.

Transaction

A transaction is when data is sent to and from one bitcoin address to another.

Just like financial transactions where you send money from one person to another, in bitcoin you do the same thing by sending data (bitcoins) to each other.

Bitcoins have value because it’s based on the properties of mathematics, rather than relying on physical properties (like gold and silver) or trust in central authorities, like fiat currencies.

Wallet

Just like with paper dollars you hold in your physical wallet, a bitcoin wallet is a digital wallet where you can store, send, and receive bitcoins securely.

There are many varieties of wallets available, whether you’re looking for a web or mobile solution.

Ideally, a bitcoin wallet will give you access to your public and private keys.

This means that only you have rightful access to spend these bitcoins, whenever you choose to.

Whale

Anyone who owns 5 percent of any given coin, often used as a boogeyman to explain unwanted price movements.

“Nice support $NEO. Clear whale manipulation.”


Blue Pill vs. Red Pill
Choose wisely

When You’re ready …



BitHouse with 💚


What bitcoin is … NOT

Bitcoin is not Abracadabra…
but Bitcoin can be Avada Kedavra for the current Banking system!

Bitcoin is not Magic…
but it can be for Muggles!

Bitcoin is not an “Investment” …
but educating yourself about bitcoin can be!

Bitcoin is not an “Investment”…
but knowing  the basics and being educated about it, lowers the chances of loosing your hard earned money!

Bitcoin is not an “Investment”…
but staking Sats proved to be a preety good Strategy in the Long Term!

Bitcoin is not digital money…
but it’s ons of it’s first applications!

Bitcoin is not money…
but is Money for the Internet!

Bitcoin is not PRICE !!!

Bitcoin is not PRICE…
but the market is driven mostly by FUD & FOMO people

Fear
Uncertainty
Doubt

bring the market Down


Fear
Of
Missing
Out

bring the market Up

Bitcoin is not a “Get Rich Quick Scheme” and the one’s that got rich were the one’s that were there from the begining…

Bitcoin is not voodoo people, magic people…
but a bunch of smart geeks & nerds that support the bitcoin’s philosophy and what it stands for…

Bitcoin is not under no juridstiction…
but it is a global p2p network of like-minded people that with the power of their equipment sustain, mantain and make the bitcoin network stronger and more decentralized!

Bitcoin is not a Coin…
but an entry in a digital ledger!

Bitcoin is not illegal activity money…
but bitcoin can be used in such activity…
Reports show that FIAT is still the No. #1 choice for “Evil Doers” as it doens’t have an public, open and visible ledger …
Duh…

Bitcoin is not evil…
but bitcoin can be used to do evil!
As does a Pen!
It can be used to do evil!
How, you would ask?
If  I take this ✏ and stick it up your a… who is Evil ?!?
The One who invented the pen?
The Pen?
Me?
Your a.. cause it was in the way 🤣
Perspective is a matter of opinion…

Bitcoin is not News…
but instead read pools, github, exchanges, wallets…
They are the ones that pave the way where bitcoin could, should or would go!

Bitcoin is not DEAD…
It was already declared Dead 441 times!

see :

https://99bitcoins.com/bitcoin-obituaries/

Bitcoin is not …
Yapidi Yapidi Yap people…

If someone says :

1 – Bitcoin consumes too much electricity, they don’t understand POW!

2 – Bitcoin isn’t a government backed currency, you should ask who backs their government…
If the answer is the Army…

3 – Bitcoin isn’t backed by gold like the the US$…
Neither is the $ since ’71

4 – Bitcoin isn’t real because I can’t see it…
80% of world’s money is Digital…

5 – Bitcoin isn’t a store of value as good as Gold is…
Gold had thousands of years to prove that, bitcoin only 13… give it time!
It already proved a lot !!!

6 – Bitcoin’s inventor is annonymous and can’t be trusted…
Who invented money then? How do money come up into existance?

7 – Bitcoin will never be largely accepted because it isn’t issued by a government…
You know what else wasn’t issued by no government ? Cars, Electricity, Steam Engine, Facebook, Uber, Google, Amazon, etc bla bla bla

8 – Bitcoin can’t be a currency cause I can’t buy anything with it…
I think I have shared a list with places that you can buy things with bitcoin…Quite a few!!!

9 – Whales… Beware of yapidi yap of whales cause they say one and do the opposite 🙂 😉 !!!

9 – Bitcoin is not this, bitcoin is not that but they all swarm around the bee’s honeypot as if it were honey 🤣🤣🤣

I forgot…In the meantime, little unsignificant countries like El Salvador, mine bitcoin with 🌋 !!!

And still newspapers, investors that bite their whatever not having invested when it was under $1, and a hole portion of the world are all saying…

Etc bla bla bla Yapidi Yapidi Yap


Never Forget The Golden Rules:

Not Your Keys, Not Your Crypto!!!

Don’t Trust, Verify!!!

Don’t Believe, Do your own Resesearch and due diligence!!!

Save your Wallet’s Mnemonic Phrase in at least 3 places for safe-keeping!!!


WE ARE SATOSHI


When you’re ready…

Timothy C. May

Hal Finney

Poem of the Legacy

From the ashes of the long forgotten past,
A bright mind wrote a code that would for ever last…
A code so powerful and strong,
That would change the world for oh so long…

The code he wrote and set it free,
For the humankind legacy to be…
To change the lives of future generations to come,
He wrote the code and he was gone…

Oh, bright mind your legacy will last,
For generations to come and be thankful about the past…
Nobody knows who you might be,
Some do and say Kudos to You for Ethernity!


Made with 💚  by Free Spirit

✌ & 💚




BitHouse with 💚

Mining Pool Payouts

Mining Pool Payouts explained: PPS vs. FPPS vs. PPLNS vs. PPS+

What is a Mining Pool?

Mining Pools

A Mining pools is a hub where a group of Crypto currency miners share their processing power to the network in order to solve the blocks quicker.

The rewards will be split equally based on the amount of shares that they contributed in finding a block.

Pool mining was introduced during early Bitcoin mining days when solo mining became non-viable.

The more powerful your hardware is, the more shares you’ll submit, the more shares you submit, the more you’ll earn.

In order for the pool to pay its miners each pool uses its own payment scheme. Two of the most popular option is PPS and PPLNS.


Mining Pool payouts explained PPS vs. FPPS vs. PPLNS vs. PPS+
Mining pool payouts explained: Pay-per-share (PPS)
Pay-Per-Share (PPS)
Pay-per-last-n-shares (PPLNS) MineBest
Pay-Per-Last-N-Shares (PPLNS)
Different mining pool payouts explained: PPS vs. FPPS vs. PPLNS vs. PPS+

The first thing a miner has to decide is which pool mining payout is best for their requirements.

PROP (proportional), FPPS (Full Pay Per Share), SMPPS (Shared Maximum Pay Per Share), ESMPPS (Equalized Shared Maximum Pay Per Share), CPPSRB (Capped Pay Per Share with Recent Backpay), PPS (Pay Per Share), PPLNS (Pay Per Last N Share) and lastly PPS+ (Pay Per Share Plus).

Among them PPS and PPLNS are the two types of payment models that are mostly used by mining pools currently. Before we explain both PPS and PPLNS we’ll make a short note on mining pool.

There are numerous payment systems (over 15), but the vast majority of the pools operate on a PPS, FPPS, PPS+ and PPLNS basis.

However, before trying to understand the different settlement models, it is important to come to a consensus on some terms used in crypto mining.

Block Reward: Block reward refers to the new coins issued by the network to miners for each successfully solved block.

Hashing PowerHash rate is the speed at which a computer completes an operation in the cryptocurrency’s code. A higher hashrate increases a miner’s opportunity of finding the next block.

Luck: Luck, in mining, is the probability of success. Imagine that each miner is given a lottery ticket for a certain amount of hashing power they provide. If they are to provide 1 TH/s hashing power when the overall hashing power in the network is 10 TH/s, then they would receive 1 of 10 total lottery tickets. The probability of winning the lottery (in this case finding the block reward) would be 10%.

Transaction Fees: Some networks (like Bitcoin) also have substantial amounts of transaction fees rewarded to miners. These fees are the total fees paid by users of the network to execute transactions.

Pay-Per-Share (PPS)

PPS offers an instant flat payout for each share that is solved. With this payment method, a miner gets a standard payout rate for each share completed. Each share is worth a certain amount of mineable cryptocurrency.

After deducting the mining pool fees, the miners are given a fixed income every day. Therefore, under the PPS mode, the returns are relatively stable. Miners are exposed to risk here. They may not get the transaction fees.

It is ideal for low priced orders for an extended period. This model becomes lucrative during a bearish run of a particular coin.

Pay-Per-Last-N-Shares (PPLNS)

With this payout, profits will be allocated based on the number of shares miners contribute. This kind of allocation method is closely related to the block mined out. If the mining pool excavates multiple blocks in a day, the miners will have a high profit; if the mining pool is not able to mine a block during the whole day, the miner’s profit during the whole day is zero.

Notably, in the short term, the PPLNS model is highly correlated with a pool’s luck. If the luck factor of a particular mining pool decreases in the short term, the miner’s income will also decrease accordingly (the opposite case of the mining pool being lucky in the short term is possible too). However, in the long term, the luck factor tends to average out to the mean.

Hence, this model is ideal for fixing orders on a big pool that has a high chance of finding a block within the order time limit. Or a standard order which will have miners connected for a longer time.

Pay Per Share + (PPS+)

PPS+ is a blend of two modes mentioned above, PPS and PPLNS. The block reward is settled according to the PPS model. And the mining service charge /transaction fee is settled according to the PPLNS mode.

That is to say, in this mode, the miner can additionally obtain the income of part of the transaction fee based on the PPLNS payment method. This was a major drawback in the PPS model.

Full Pay Per Share (FPPS)

With this pool payout, both the block reward and the mining service charge are settled according to the theoretical profit. Calculate a standard transaction fee within a certain period and distribute it to miners according to their hash power contributions in the pool. It increases the miners’ earnings by sharing some of the transaction fees.

With the PPS and FPPS payment methods, you will get paid no matter if the pool finds a block or not. This is the most significant advantage over PPLNS. The risks and rewards are higher with the PPLNS plan.

The decision on which mining plan to choose from needs to be preceded by the decision of choosing the right mining infrastructure.


Difference between PPS vs PPLNS payment models?

PPLNS

PPLNS stands for Pay Per Last (luck) N Shares. This method calculates your payments based on the number of shares you submitted during a shift.

It includes shift system which is time based or by number of shares submitted by the miners on the pool.

Your pool may find blocks consistently or in overtime it may have huge variations in winning a block and that ultimately affects your payments. PPLNS greatly involves luck factor and you’ll notice huge fluctuations in your 24 hour payout.

If you maintain your mining on a single pool then your payouts will remain consistent and it only differs when new miners join or leave the pool.

PPS

Pay Per Share pays you an average of the number of shares that you contributed to the pool in finding blocks.

PPS pays you on solid rate and is more of a direct method which completely eliminates luck factor.

In PPS method regardless of the pools lucky at winning blocks you’re going to get 100% payout at the end of the day. This is because there is a standard payout set for each miners based on their hash power.

It won’t be more than 100% or less than that and with this PPS method you can easily calculate your potential earnings.

On the other hand with PPLNS payment system on average you can either get more than 100% or less than that. It is based on how lucky the pool is at finding blocks.

Should I choose PPS or PPLNS?

This is one of the common questions most miners have initially.

Should I choose Pay Per Share or Pay Per Last N Share pools?

If you are the person who don’t switch pools often then PPLNS is definitely for you as such pools are good at rewarding its loyal miners.

Pay Per Share: No matter what, if you need a fixed payouts at the end of the day to liquidate or for whatsoever reason then your choice would be PPS.

Pay Per Share works well for large mining farms who can calculate and have statistics based on their mining power.

PPS is good for large miners but really bad for pool owners as there is a guaranteed payout for work no matter if the pool hits the block or not.

For this reason and because of pool hoppers (not loyal miners of the pool) most of the mining pools have switched to PPLNS payment model.

Pay Per Last N Shares: If you are the one that is looking to accumulate and hold more coins then PPLNS is recommended.

For each block that your pool finds you’ll get a share based on your hashrate.

Unlike PPS, in PPLNS you’ll get payouts more often and in the long run you’ll be rewarded more with PPLNS than PPS.

However due to huge variance it’s really hard to calculate your mining income.

PPLNS is good for both mid-range miners and pool owners as the payouts is only based on the blocks found.

If your pool is more lucky  then you’ll see payments more often. This is the reason why miners stick to a pool where there is more hash power assuming the pool finds block very often.

You can find more comparison of mining pools payment system here.

How to find out if a pool is PPS or PPLNS?

Cryptocurrency mining can be a lucrative process. However it’s very important that you find out what payment scheme your pool is using before committing your hashing power.

Most of the mining pools has this information listed on FAQ page or at payouts page. If you’re unable to find this information then the only option is to contact the pool support.

Hope the information on this page is helpful for you to decide the right mining pool.


Happy Hashing


Shared with 💚 by Free Spirit

✌ & 💚

#1 Book of the Year I recomend reading…

“Ego is the Enemy”


“Re-read it each year. It’s that important.”

Derek Sivers, author of “Anything you want”

“This is a book I want every athlete, aspiring leader, entrepreneur, thinker and doer to read. Ryan Holiday is one of the most promising young writers of his generation.”

George Raveling, Hall of Fame Basketball Coach

“Ryan Holiday is one of his generation’s finest thinkers, and this book is his best yet.”

Steven Pressfield, author of “The War of Art” and “Gates of Fire

“Ryan Holiday has written a brilliant and engaging book, well beyond his years… It is invaluable.”

Brian Koppelman, screenwriter and director, “Rounders”, “Ocean’s Thirteen” and “Billions”

Ego Is the Enemy

“While the history books are filled with tales of obsessive, visionary geniuses who remade the world in their image with sheer, almost irrational force, I’ve found that history is also made by individuals who fought their egos at every turn, who eschewed the spotlight, and who put their higher goals above their desire for recognition.” – from the Prologue

Many of us insist the main impediment to a full, successful life is the outside world. In fact, the most common enemy lies within: our ego. Early in our careers, it impedes learning and the cultivation of talent. With success, it can blind us to our faults and sow future problems. In failure, it magnifies each blow and makes recovery more difficult. At every stage, ego holds us back.

The Ego is the Enemy draws on a vast array of stories and examples, from literature to philosophy to history. We meet fascinating figures like Howard Hughes, Katharine Graham, Bill Belichick, and Eleanor Roosevelt, all of whom reached the highest levels of power and success by conquering their own egos. Their strategies and tactics can be ours as well.

But why should we bother fighting ego in an era that glorifies social media, reality TV, and other forms of shameless self-promotion?  Armed with the lessons in this book, as Holiday writes, “you will be less invested in the story you tell about your own specialness, and as a result, you will be liberated to accomplish the world-changing work you’ve set out to achieve.


RYAN HOLIDAY


Ryan Holiday is a strategist and writer. He dropped out of college at nineteen to appren­tice under Robert Greene, author of “The 48 Laws of Power”, and later served as the director of mar­keting for American Apparel.

His company, Brass Check, has advised clients like Google, TASER, and Complex, as well as many prominent bestselling authors.

Holiday has written four previous books, most recently The Obstacle Is the Way, which has been translated into seventeen languages and has a cult following among NFL coaches, world-class athletes, TV personalities, political leaders, and others around the world.

He lives on a small ranch outside Austin, Texas. 


Made with 💚 by Free Spirit

✌ & 💚


Did you find this article helpful?

If so, please consider a donation to help the evolution and development of more helpful articles in the future, and show your support for alternative articles.

Your generosity is 💚ly appreciated.

You can donate in any crypto your 💚 desires 😊

Thank you all for your time ! 🤗 !

✌ & 💚


Bitcoin (BTC) :

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LiteCoin(LTC) :

LYAdiSpsTJ36EWCJ5HF9EGy9iWGCwoLhed


Ethereum(ETH) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856


EthereumClassic(ETC) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856


Cardano(ADA) :

addr1q88c5cccnrqy6xesszzvf7rd4tcz87klt0m0h6uvltywqe8txwmsrrqdnpq27594tyn9vz59zv0n8367lvyc2atvrzvqlvdm9d


BinanceCoin(BNB) :

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BitcoinCash (BCH)

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Bitcoin SV (BSV)

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ZCash(ZEC) :

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Dash(DASH) :

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Shiba(SHIB) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856


Tron(TRX) :

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Stellar(XLM) :

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Kudos to @ChessurKot

I 💚 it so much i had to share it !!!

Amazing poster and imagination !!!

Shared with 💚 by Free Spirit

✌ & 💚

AltCoin Stores

ALT Coin Stores and Services List

This page is to promote actual stores and people who sell services for ALTcoins.

What is most important, is to spread the word and make people aware of the widespread adoption of the cryptocurrencies all around the globe and in all layers of life !!!

*Not Updated… Work in Progress...

Stores selling goods NexWave – http://www.nexwave.ca

Coin payments processed Coaex – Buy custom gold bars, gold bullion, silver and jewelry – http://www.coaex.com/ – BTC, LTC, DOGE, BC, NOBL, FTC   

CoinCable Mining Supplies    – https://coincable.com    – BTC, LTC, PPC, NVC, XPM, YAC, PayPal

Crypto Coin Wallet Cards    – http://www.cryptocoinwalletcards.com    – LTC

Register domain using Bitcoin and Litecoin    – http://www.lovingdomains.com    – BTC, LTC, NMC, PPC, NVC

Pay hosting with Bitcoin and Litecoin    – http://www.lovinghosting.com    – BTC, LTC, NMC, PPC,

NVC Amazonia Imports    – http://btcpipeshop.com    – 42, ANC, BTC, BC, BQC, CAT, CGB, DGC, DMD, DOGE, DVC, FRC, FRK, FST, FTC, GLD, LTC, MAX, MZC, MEC, NET, NMC, NVC, NXT, PPC, QRK, RED, SBC, SPT, STR, SXC, TRC, UNO, WDC, XPM, & ZET

WROL.INFO – Survival Supplies    – http://wrol.info    – BTC, LTC, FTC, NMC, NVC, TRC, XPM, KGC, RED, ORB, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, QRK, ZET

NewsBam Usenet Services    – http://www.newsbam.com    – BTC, LTC, STR, FTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, ORB, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC,

SXC Cryptobooks – Buy eBooks with with cryptocurrency    – http://www.cryptobooks.com    – BTC, LTC, FTC, PPC, DVC, SXC

Bitezze – Buy precious metals with cryptocurrency    – http://bitezze.com    – BTC, LTC, STR, FTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, SXC, ADT, MEC, ANC, ZET, NET, PayPal Passthru

CryptoDirect    – http://www.cryptodirect.cf    – BTC, LTC, FTC, PPC, NVC, WDC, XPM, IFC, DGC, ANC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRC

Cheap Miners – Cheap ASIC miners and accessories    – http://www.cheapminers.com    – BTC, LTC, XPM

Dahms Weinversand – German Wine Home Delivery    – http://www.dahms-weinversand.de   

4:19 Store    – http://www.419store.com    Crypto Game Keys    – http://www.cryptogamekeys.com    – BTC, LTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, ORB, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, SXC, ADT, MEC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRK, COL, SBC

VPS City    – http://www.vps-city.com    – LTC, PayPal Passthru

Thermostats, actuators and controllers    – http://www.thermostatenshop.nl    – BTC

Electric heating appliances    – http://www.budgetheat.eu    – BTC

Romer and 2HEAT far infrared panels    – http://www.infraroodpanelen.eu    – BTC

Outdoor- and ramp heating    – http://www.opritverwarmingen.eu    – BTC

Ceramic heating elements    – http://www.keraheat.com    – BTC Distinguished

Imports    – https://distinguishedimports.com    – BTC, LTC, PPC

GameCardVN    – http://gamecardsvn.com   

Verbena Products – Family owned online store specializing in bringing our customers high end Health and Beauty products at very competitive prices.    – https://www.verbenaproducts.com    – BTC, LTC, PPC

Cryptocoin Stuff!    – http://www.cryptocoinstuff.com    – BTC, LTC, FTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, ORB, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, SXC, ADT, MEC, ANC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRK, COL, SBC, FRC

Retro Towers    – http://www.retrotowers.co.uk    – BTC, LTC, FTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, ORB, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, ADT, MEC, ANC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRK, COL, SBC, FRC

VPS4ME    – http://vps4.me    – BTC, LTC, FTC, NMC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, SXC, ADT, MEC, ANC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRK

HostClub    – http://hostclub.me

WaterIdo – Healthy Water Revitalizer    – http://waterido.com    – BTC, LTC, FTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, ADT, MEC, ANC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRK, COL   

Sarasota Slot Machines    – http://sarasotaslotmachines.com    – BTC, LTC, IFC, MEC, PayPal Passthru

GRKreations Direct    – http://grkreationsdirect.com    – BTC, LTC, FTC, NMC, PPC, NVC, WDC, TRC, XPM, IFC, KGC, RED, BQC, CGB, DVC, CAP, DGC, GLD, YAC, SXC, ADT, MEC, ANC, QRK, ZET, NET, FRK, COL, SBC, FRC, PayPal Passthru

Mining Hardware    – http://www.mininghardware.co.uk    – BTC, LTC

DuinoBits – Arduino kits (UK & Europe)    http://www.duinobits.com    – BTC, LTC

Johnsbay Flooring Co. – Flooring Material including Carpeting, Wood flooring, Laminate, Tiles.    – http://www.johnsbay.com    – BTC

Hash Rate Store    – https://www.hashratestore.com    – BTC, LTC

Coin Gas – Steam game codes for alt coins    – http://www.coingas.com    – BTC, CAP, DGC, FTC, GIL, LTC, NVC, PPC, WDC, CGB

sauce4coins    – http://sauce4coins.com    – BQC, BTC, LTC, BTB, CGB, FTC, CAP, VNC, DGC, XPM (and others if you email them)

BottleCaps Store – Itunes cards and World of tanks tokens    – http://bottlecapstore.weebly.com    – CAP’s and LTC – Canadian Orders for Itunes only

cryptosextoys    – http://www.cryptosextoys.com    – BTC, CAP, DGC, FTC, LTC, NVC, PPC, CGB, SXC

dailybit – Daily special something new everyday – http://dailybit.net    – BTC, LTC, XPM, FTC,CAP, IFC, WDC, NVC, NMC, TRC, KGC, PPC, RED, STR, WDC, Peercoins and Paypal

REDCOINSHOP – Herbal pills remedies    – http://REDCOINSHOP.com    – RED

pythonpills- Male enhancement pill    – http://pythonpills.com/red    – RED

bitcoinprbuzz – Press Release services for crypto projects – Copy Writing and content creation – Business consulting    – http://bitcoinprbuzz.com    – BTC, DVC,BTC, CGB, LTC and FST

finite by design – Coins, Pendants etc    – http://www.finitebydesign.com    – CGB

cryptothrift – Online Thrift Shop    – https://cryptothrift.com    – BTC, LTC

Litehosting- Web Hosting    – http://Litehosting.org    – BTC, LTC, NMC, XPM

ltcasics – All kinds of gift cards    – http://ltcasics.com    – LTC AltcoinTIP    – http://reddit.com/r/ALTcointip    – BTC, LTC, PPC, NMC, FTC, and XPM

DirectVoltage – alternative energy retailer    – http://DirectVoltage.com    – BTC, LTC, FTC, PPC

Sex Stories    – http://erotica4sxc.tk/about-2    – SXC

Porn Database    – http://www.porndatabase.co.uk    – SXC

3D Porn    – http://www.lynortis.com/alt-coins.php    – SXC

coinaxis    – https://coinaxis.com/    – LTC

dvc4giftcards – Giftcards    – http://dvc4giftcards.us    – DEV

Bitcora – Bitcoin templates and themes – https://bitorca.com   

Epawnatl- Pawn Shop    – http://Epawnatl.com    – FRK, BTC

Etsyshop    – http://www.etsy.com/shop/InnovoDesign    – DOGE, IFC, COL,LTC

Open Source Solutions    – http://www.iquidus.co.nz    – BTC, MEC, LTC, Earthcoins

LEALANA PHYSICAL LITECOINS…and BITCOINS – http://www.lealana.com – LTC

Evonym – http://evonym.us/ -BTC, LTC, TRC, PPC.

Minecraft Server – https://alt-co.in/minecraft/ – GME

Sexslam – http://sexslam.com – RED

All Things Luxury – http://www.allthingsluxury.biz/ – BTC, LTC

7 Pay In – Pay for mobile and ISP services/ecash/WoT/Steam/whatever – https://7pay.in/ – BTC, LTC, CL and NVC

CryptFolio – CryptFolio lets you keep track of your cryptocurrencies – http://CryptFolio.com – BTC, LTC

Bananalizard.com – Video game store – http://bananalizard.com – BTC, LTC, CGB, XPM, paypal

Tagbond.com – Merchant site hosting – http://tagbond.com – BTC, TAG

Cleverpuffin – Web Hosting – http://www.cleverpuffin.com – LTC

Bitroad – Electronics from China including tablet, phones, surveillance, security and gadgets delivered worldwide in 3-6 days (express). – http://bitroad.co.uk/ – BTC, LTC

Get More Customers – San Francisco Marketing/SEO Company – http://get-more-customers.com and http://sanfranciscoseoagency.com/cryptocurrency/ – EAC

BitCoinPINS!! – http://www.bitcoinpins.com/ – EAC

Polish SEO company – http://dodawanie.com/ – EAC

FlightSchool! Commercial pilot and flying instructor – http://www.paul-bradley.com – EAC ribbit.me – http://ribbit.me https://coinpayments.net/

Tagbond.com https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=317408

This is a list of services and games that support LottoCoin (LOT): Services:

CyberSticker service: http://www.cryptostickers.com/

Reload Creative (app/web development service): http://reloadcreative.com.au/

Advertising pixels http://www.qugetser.com/lot-map

SEO Service http://sanfranciscoseoagency.com/cryptocurrency/

Games: CoinBomb: http://coinbomb.biz/lottocoin/

Lotto Game: http://lottocoin.org/lottogame/

Another Lotto Game: http://www.keezi.com/lotto/index.php

Lotto Dice Game: http://www.lottodice.tk/

Here is a list of shops/services/games that accept EarthCoin Iquidus Technology –

Open Source Solutions – 

http://www.iquidus.co.nz/

Get More Customers – San Francisco Marketing/SEO Company – http://get-more-customers.com

http://sanfranciscoseoagency.com/cryptocurrency/

BitCoinPINS!! http://www.bitcoinpins.com/

Polish SEO company http://dodawanie.com/

FlightSchool! Commercial pilot and flying instructor http://www.paul-bradley.com

Beautiful EarthCoin Paper Wallet Generator http://earthaddress.org/

EarthCoin Gaia Game http://gaia.l8.lv/

Logo Design http://logodynamic.blogspot.ca/p/sold-logos.html

Dice Game http://earthdice.tk/

LixNez Games http://www.lixnez.com/eacgames.html

EarthRoll Game http://earthroll.l8.lv/

Kissmyweb.com – We Build Websites – Simple! http://www.kissmyweb.com BTC and DVC accepted

http://scryptstore.com Gold & Silver – Paypal direct deposits and gift cards

Healthiverse – http://healthiverse.net

TuffWraps – Athletic Wrist Wraps   – http://tuffwraps.com

Crypto Alley – The Online Digital Currency Marketplace – http://www.cryptoalley.com

Cryptmint – Precious Metal Bitcoin Wallets & Physical Coins – http://www.cryptmint.com/

Devcoin Store – http://devcoinstore.com

Crypto Store – http://cryptostore.io

Armonie Sonore – http://www.armoniesonore.com

StickerzLab – http://www.stickerzlab.com   

Trade4Bitcoin – Comics and Collectibles   http://www.trade4bitcoin.com

Scryptcoin Store – http://www.scryptstore.com 

Fine Art Source – http://out-of-court-settlement.com

NitroBacku – http://www.nitrobackup.com

Cardz4Cash – Gift, Prepaid, Game, and VoIP Cards + more – http://cardz4cash.com

Vapeur Canada – http://www.vapeurcanada.com

DOGMA Portraits – http://dogmaportraits.com

Heat4Feet – http://www.heat4feet.net

BitcoinMetals – http://www.bitcoinmetals.us

DDoS Cover – http://ddoscover.com

Doge Host – http://dogehost.co.uk

Bit Electronics – http://bitelectronics.net/

http://quickbomb.com   RED https://dicenow.com

PXL COIN – http://www.pxlcoin.com/

Here is a list of sites that accept QRK:

http://www.petscoin.com/ – Animal/Pet store, Donations to Shelters

http://www.51attack.com/ – T-Shirt makers that currently accept 31 cryptocurrencies

http://www.chasinho.org/shop/ – Tea shop in Berlin

http://www.keepitwooden.com – Custom Wooden Shot Glasses (Accepts Coinpayments)

http://www.appsforcoins.com/?currency=QRK – Apple iOS Apps

143VPN – http://143vpn.com

SimRai Game Servers – http://www.simrai.com

CryptoHosted.com – http://cryptohosted.com

The Staking Machine – TSM – http://www.thestakingmachine.com

Vox – http://www.vox-game.com/buy-with-crypto-coins/

Upchurch Design – http://upchur.ch

BTC Headshop – http://btcheadshop.com

Bitcoin Sportscards – http://bitcoinsportscards.com

ThanksBitcoin.com – http://www.thanksbitcoin.com

Those shops/services accept payment using Graincoin (GRA), many of which through CoinPayments that support Graincoin:

Wood Shot Glass http://woodshotglass.com/

Tuff Wraps http://tuffwraps.com/

Computer hardware and consumer electronics   http://brownboxtech.net

WaterIdo – Healthy Water Revitalizer http://waterido.com

Xbox Gold 48 Hour Codes – 2 for $1 http://xbox48.bugs3.com

Iquidus Technology – OpenSource Software, Hi-Performance Hardware http://www.iquidus.co.nz/

Retro Towers – Gaming Hardware http://www.retrotowers.co.uk/

Stickerz Lab – French Sticker Decorations http://stickerzlab.com/

Pixcoin – Stickers for Crypto Coins http://pixcoin.com/

Crypto GameKeys – Buy CD Keys, PSN cards, PS3/4/Vita games http://www.cryptogamekeys.com ThanksBitcoin – a Bitcoin shop http://www.thanksbitcoin.com

Advertise Service http://cryptotiler.com/

Graincoin main thread at: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=361503.0

143VPN – http://143vpn.com

SimRai Game Servers – http://www.simrai.com

CryptoHosted.com – http://cryptohosted.com

The Staking Machine – TSM – http://www.thestakingmachine.com

Vox – http://www.vox-game.com/buy-with-crypto-coins/

Upchurch Design – http://upchur.ch

BTC Headshop – http://btcheadshop.com

Bitcoin Sportscards – http://bitcoinsportscards.com

ThanksBitcoin.com – http://www.thanksbitcoin.com

Wood Shot Glass : http://woodshotglass.com/

Tuff Wraps http://tuffwraps.com/

Computer hardware and consumer electronics   http://brownboxtech.net

WaterIdo – Healthy Water Revitalizer http://waterido.com

Xbox Gold 48 Hour Codes – 2 for $1 http://xbox48.bugs3.com

Iquidus Technology – OpenSource Software, Hi-Performance Hardware http://www.iquidus.co.nz/

Retro Towers – Gaming Hardware http://www.retrotowers.co.uk/

Stickerz Lab – French Sticker Decorations http://stickerzlab.com/

Pixcoin – Stickers for Crypto Coins http://pixcoin.com/

Crypto GameKeys – Buy CD Keys, PSN cards, PS3/4/Vita games http://www.cryptogamekeys.com ThanksBitcoin – a Bitcoin shop http://www.thanksbitcoin.com

Advertise Service http://cryptotiler.com/

Gamble with Altcoins http://www.coincasino.cc – Casino that takes many coins

http://www.litecointogox.com – Bet on LTC when it comes to GOX or coinbase – BTC, LTC, FTC,IFC ,KGC, NMC, NVC, WDC, XPM, STR, RED, TRC, Peercoin

http://cryptoblackjack.kicks-ass.net – BlackJack style game – GME, DBL, MNC, LKY, WDC, DGC, BQC, PXC, PPC, GLD, MEM, DMD, EZC, FRK, CAP, IFC, KGC, CSC, CGB, HBN

http://alt-co.in/slots.php – A Slot machine – FTC, WDC, DGC, CHN, LTC, BBQ, GMC

http://REDCOINCASINO.com – Various unique gambling games – RED

http://redcoinlotto.com – Lotto – RED

http://coinjack.com/ – BlackJack – RED

http://lotto.coinworld.us/ – Multiple coin lotteries – DGC, FLC, RED, MEC, EMD, ALF, CAP, CGB, IFC, ARG, LTC, CRC

http://litecoinkamikaze.com – LTC

http://fckamikaze.com – FTC

http://minikaze.com – MNC

http://bit-loot.com – LTC

http://www.litecoinlottery.com/ – LTC

http://rapidballs.eu   – 5 Minute Lotto site – WDC, XPM, TIX, DVC

http://litecoinkamikaze.com – LTC

http://fckamikaze.com – FTC

http://minikaze.com – MNC

Provably fair Litecoin Roulette – http://www.l8.lv/ – Single Zero European Style Litecoin Roulette.

Provably Fair! DogeCoin Provably fair DogeCoin Roulette – http://dogespin.l8.lv/

Single Zero European Style Dogecoin Roulette. Provably Fair! BlackJack style game http://cryptoblackjack.kicks-ass.net/

A Slot machine http://alt-co.in/slots.php

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Did you find this article helpful?

If so, please consider a donation to help the evolution and development of more helpful articles in the future, and show your support for alternative articles.

Your generosity is 💚ly appreciated.

You can donate in any crypto your 💚 desires 😊

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Bitcoin (BTC) :

1P1tTNFGRZabK65RhqQxVmcMDHQeRX9dJJ


LiteCoin(LTC) :

LYAdiSpsTJ36EWCJ5HF9EGy9iWGCwoLhed


Ethereum(ETH) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856


EthereumClassic(ETC) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856


Cardano(ADA) :

addr1q88c5cccnrqy6xesszzvf7rd4tcz87klt0m0h6uvltywqe8txwmsrrqdnpq27594tyn9vz59zv0n8367lvyc2atvrzvqlvdm9d


BinanceCoin(BNB) :

bnb1wwfnkzs34knsrv2g026t458l0mwp5a3tykeylx


BitcoinCash (BCH)

1P1tTNFGRZabK65RhqQxVmcMDHQeRX9dJJ


Bitcoin SV (BSV)

1P1tTNFGRZabK65RhqQxVmcMDHQeRX9dJJ


ZCash(ZEC) :

t1fSSQX4gEhove9ngcvFafQaMPq5dtNNsNF


Dash(DASH) :

XcWmbFw1VmxEPxvF9CWdjzKXwPyDTrbMwj


Shiba(SHIB) :

0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856


Tron(TRX) :

TCsJJkqt9xk1QZWQ8HqZHnqexR15TEowk8


Stellar(XLM) :

GBL4UKPHP2SXZ6Y3PRF3VRI5TLBL6XFUABZCZC7S7KWNSBKCIBGQ2Y54





Bitcoin Halving

Bitcoin Halving

What Is a Bitcoin Halving?

Bitcoin’s most recent halving occurred on May 11, 2020. To explain what a Bitcoin halving is, we must first explain a bit about how the Bitcoin network operates.

Bitcoin’s underlying technology, blockchain, basically consists of a collection of computers (or nodes) that run Bitcoin’s software and contain a partial or complete history of transactions occurring on its network.

Each full node, or a node containing the entire history of transactions on Bitcoin, is responsible for approving or rejecting a transaction in Bitcoin’s network.

To do that, the node conducts a series of checks to ensure that the transaction is valid. These include ensuring that the transaction contains the correct validation parameters, such as nonces, and does not exceed the required length.

A transaction occurs only after all the parties operating in Bitcoin’s network approve it within the block on which the transaction exists. After approval, the transaction is appended to the existing blockchain and broadcast to other nodes.

The blockchain serves as a pseudonymous record of transactions (i.e., its contents are visible to everyone, but it is difficult to identify transacting parties in the network). This is because the blockchain assigns encrypted addresses to each transacting party in the network. That said, even those who do not participate in the network as a node or miner can view these transactions taking place live by looking at block explorers.

More computers (or nodes) added to the blockchain increase its stability and security.

There are currently 12,035 nodes estimated to be running Bitcoin’s code. Though anyone can participate in Bitcoin’s network as a node, as long as they have enough storage to download the entire blockchain and its history of transactions, not all of them are miners.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • A Bitcoin halving event is when the reward for mining bitcoin transactions is cut in half.
  • This event also cuts in half Bitcoin’s inflation rate and the rate at which new bitcoins enter circulation.
  • Both previous halvings have correlated with intense boom and bust cycles that have ended with higher prices than prior to the event.
  • Bitcoin last halved on May 11, 2020, around 3 p.m. EST, resulting in a block reward of 6.25 BTC.

Bitcoin Mining

Bitcoin mining is the process by which people use their computers to participate in Bitcoin’s blockchain network as a transaction processor and validator.

Bitcoin uses a system called proof of work (PoW). This means that miners must prove they have put forth effort in processing transactions to be rewarded. This effort includes the time and energy it takes to run the computer hardware and solve complex equations.

Faster computers with certain types of hardware yield larger block rewards and some companies have designed computer chips specifically built for mining. These computers are tasked with processing Bitcoin transactions, and they are rewarded for doing so.

The term mining is not used in a literal sense but as a reference to the way precious metals are gathered.

Bitcoin miners solve mathematical problems and confirm the legitimacy of a transaction. They then add these transactions to a block and create chains of these blocks of transactions, forming the blockchain.

When a block is filled up with transactions, the miners that processed and confirmed the transactions within the block are rewarded with bitcoins.

Transactions of greater monetary value require more confirmations to ensure security. This process is called mining because the work performed to get new bitcoins out of the code is the digital equivalent to the physical work done to pull gold out of the Earth.

El Salvador made Bitcoin legal tender on June 9, 2021. It is the first country to do so. The cryptocurrency can be used for any transaction where the business can accept it. The U.S. dollar continues to be El Salvador’s primary currency.

Bitcoin Halving

After every 210,000 blocks mined, or roughly every four years, the block reward given to Bitcoin miners for processing transactions is cut in half.

This cuts in half the rate at which new bitcoins are released into circulation. This is Bitcoin’s way of using a synthetic form of inflation that halves every four years until all bitcoins are released into circulation.

This system will continue until around the year 2140.

At that point, miners will be rewarded with fees for processing transactions, which network users will pay. These fees ensure that miners still have the incentive to mine and keep the network going. The idea is that competition for these fees will cause them to remain low after the halvings are finished.

The halving is significant because it marks another drop in the rate of new Bitcoins being produced as it approaches its finite supply: the total maximum supply of bitcoins is 21 million. As of October 2021, there are about 18.85 million bitcoins already in circulation, leaving just around 2.15 million left to be released via mining rewards.

In 2009, the reward for each block in the chain mined was 50 bitcoins. After the first halving, it was 25, and then 12.5, and then it became 6.25 bitcoins per block as of May 11, 2020.

To put this in another context, imagine if the amount of gold mined out of the Earth was cut in half every four years. If gold’s value is based on its scarcity, then a “halving” of gold output every four years would theoretically drive its price higher.

Coin Metrics Bitcoin Halving
Coin Metrics logarithmic chart of Bitcoin price action following halvings.

Halving Implications

These halvings reduce the rate at which new coins are created and thus lower the available amount of new supply, even as demand might increase.

This can cause some implications for investors as other assets with low or finite supply, like gold, can have high demand and push prices higher.

In the past, these Bitcoin halvings have correlated with massive surges in Bitcoin’s price.

The first halving, which occurred on Nov. 28, 2012, saw an increase from $12 to $1,217 on Nov. 28, 2013.

The second Bitcoin halving occurred on July 9, 2016. The price at that halving was $647, and by Dec. 17, 2017, a bitcoin’s price had soared to $19,800. The price then fell over the course of a year from this peak down to $3,276 on Dec. 17, 2018, a price 506% higher than its pre-halving price.

The most recent halving occurred on May 11, 2020. On that date, a bitcoin’s price was $8,787. On April 14, 2021, a bitcoin’s price soared to $64,507 (an astonishing 634% increase from its pre-halving price). A month later, on May 11, 2021, a bitcoin’s price was $54,276, representing a 517% increase that seems more consistent with the behavior of the 2016 halving.

On May 12, 2021, Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla, announced that Tesla would no longer accept Bitcoin as payment, resulting in further price fluctuations.

In the week that followed Musk’s statements, the price of a bitcoin plunged below $40,000 after Chinese regulators announced restrictions banning financial institutions and payment companies from providing cryptocurrency-related services.

Though these two announcements may have temporarily created a price drop in Bitcoin, there is the potential that the price fluctuations are more related to the halving behavior we have observed previously.

The theory of the halving and the chain reaction that it sets off works something like this:

The reward is halved → half the inflation → lower available supply → higher demand → higher price → miners incentive still remains, regardless of smaller rewards, as the value of Bitcoin is increased in the process

In the event that a halving does not increase demand and price, then miners would have no incentive. The reward for completing transactions would be smaller, and the value of Bitcoin would not be high enough.

To prevent this, Bitcoin has a process to change the difficulty it takes to get mining rewards, or in other words, the difficulty of mining a transaction.

In the event that the reward has been halved, and the value of Bitcoin has not increased, the difficulty of mining would be reduced to keep miners incentivized.

This means that the quantity of bitcoins released as a reward is still smaller, but the difficulty of processing a transaction is reduced.

This process has proved successful twice. So far, the result of these halvings has been a ballooning in price followed by a large drop.

The crashes that have followed these gains, however, have still maintained prices higher than before these halving events.

For example, as mentioned above, the 2017 to 2018 bubble saw the value of a bitcoin rise to around $20,000, only to fall to around $3,200. This is a massive drop, but a bitcoin’s price before the halving was around $650.3

Though this system has worked so far, the halving is typically surrounded by immense speculation, hype, and volatility, and how the market will react to these events in the future is unpredictable.

The third halving occurred not only during a global pandemic, but also in an environment of heightened regulatory speculation, increased institutional interest in digital assets, and celebrity hype. Given these additional factors, where Bitcoin’s price will ultimately settle in the aftermath remains unclear.

What Happens When Bitcoin Halves?

The term “halving” as it relates to Bitcoin has to do with how many Bitcoin tokens are found in a newly created block.

Back in 2009, when Bitcoin launched, each block contained 50 BTC, but this amount was set to be reduced by 50% roughly every four years.

Today, there have been three halving events, and a block now only contains 6.25 BTC.

When the next halving occurs, a block will only contain 3.125 BTC.

When Have the Halvings Occurred?

The first bitcoin halving occurred on Nov. 28, 2012, after a total of 10,500,000 BTC had been mined. The next occurred on July 9, 2016, and the latest was on May 11, 2020. The next is expected to occur in early 2024.

Why Are the Halvings Occurring Less Than Every Four Years?

The Bitcoin mining algorithm is set with a target of finding new blocks once every 10 minutes.

However, if more miners join the network and add more hashing power, the time to find blocks will decrease.

This is remedied by resetting the mining difficulty (or how hard it is for a computer to solve the mining algorithm) once every two weeks or so to restore a 10-minute target.

As the Bitcoin network has grown exponentially over the past decade, the average time to find a block has consistently remained below 10 minutes (roughly 9.5 minutes).

Does Halving Have Any Effect on the Bitcoin Price?

The price of Bitcoin has risen steadily and significantly from its launch in 2009, when it traded for mere pennies or dollars, to April 2021 when the price of one bitcoin traded for over $63,000.3

Because halving the block reward effectively doubles the cost to miners, who are essentially the producers of bitcoins, it should have a positive impact on price because producers will need to adjust their selling price to their costs.

Empirical evidence does show that Bitcoin prices tend to rise in anticipation of a halvening, often several months prior to the actual event.

What Happens When There Are No More Bitcoins Left in a Block?

Around the year 2140, the last of the 21 million bitcoins ever to be mined will have been mined.

At this point, the halving schedule will cease because there will be no more new bitcoins to be found.

Miners, however, will still be incentivized to continue validating and confirming new transactions on the blockchain because the value of transaction fees paid to miners is expected to rise into the future, the reasons being that a greater transaction volume that has fees will be attached, plus bitcoins will have a greater nominal market value.

TRUSTe

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Calculate Hashes/s

How can I calculate how many hashes I generate per second?

I have a function which generates hashes from a string:

string GenerateHash(string plainText);

I generate as many hashes as possible with 4 threads.

How do I calculate how many hashes (or megahashes) I generate per second?

Your problem breaks down nicely into 3 separate tasks

  1. Sharing a single count variable across threads
  2. Benchmarking thread completion time
  3. Calculating hashes per/second

Sharing a single count variable across threads

public static class GlobalCounter
{ public static int Value { get;
private set;
} public static void Increment()
{ Value =GetNextValue(Value);
} private static int GetNextValue(int curValue) { returnInterlocked.Increment(ref curValue);
} public static void Reset() { Value = 0; } }

Before you spin off the threads call GlobalCounter.Reset and then in each thread (after each successful hash) you would call GlobalCounter.Increment – using Interlocked.X performs atomic operations of Value in a thread-safe manner, it’s also much faster than lock.

Benchmarking thread completion time

var sw = Stopwatch.StartNew(); Parallel.ForEach(someCollection, someValue => 
{ // generate hash GlobalCounter.Increment();
}); sw.Stop();

Parallel.ForEach will block until all threads have finished

Calculating hashes per second

... sw.Stop(); var hashesPerSecond = GlobalCounter.Value / sw.Elapsed.Seconds;

Did you find this article helpful?

If so, please consider a donation to help the evolution and development of more helpful articles in the future, and show your support for alternative articles.

Your generosity is 💚 ly appreciated

You can donate in any crypto your 💚 desires 😊

Thank you all for your time !!!

✌ & 💚

Bitcoin (BTC) :
1P1tTNFGRZabK65RhqQxVmcMDHQeRX9dJJ

LiteCoin(LTC) :
LYAdiSpsTJ36EWCJ5HF9EGy9iWGCwoLhed

Ethereum(ETH) :
0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856

EthereumClassic(ETC) :
0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856

Cardano(ADA)
addr1q88c5cccnrqy6xesszzvf7rd4tcz87klt0m0h6uvltywqe8txwmsrrqdnpq27594tyn9vz59zv0n8367lvyc2atvrzvqlvdm9d

BinanceCoin(BNB)
bnb1wwfnkzs34knsrv2g026t458l0mwp5a3tykeylx

BitcoinCash (BCH)
1P1tTNFGRZabK65RhqQxVmcMDHQeRX9dJJ

BitcoinSV(BSV)
1P1tTNFGRZabK65RhqQxVmcMDHQeRX9dJJ

ZCash(ZEC)
t1fSSQX4gEhove9ngcvFafQaMPq5dtNNsNF

Dash(DASH)
XcWmbFw1VmxEPxvF9CWdjzKXwPyDTrbMwj

Shiba(SHIB)
0x602e8Ca3984943cef57850BBD58b5D0A6677D856

Tron(TRX)
TCsJJkqt9xk1QZWQ8HqZHnqexR15TEowk8

Stellar(XLM)
GBL4UKPHP2SXZ6Y3PRF3VRI5TLBL6XFUABZCZC7S7KWNSBKCIBGQ2Y54

Made with 💚 by Free Spirit

✌ & 💚